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Part IV – Heart Failure

Chapter 24 – Mechanisms of Cardiac Contraction and Relaxation

Lionel H. Opie,
Gerd Hasenfuss

  MICROANATOMY OF CONTRACTILE CELLS AND PROTEINS, 459
  Ultrastructure of Contractile Cells, 459
  Contractile Proteins, 460
  Myofilament Response to Hemodynamic Demands, 465

  CALCIUM ION FLUXES IN CARDIAC CONTRACTION-RELAXATION CYCLE, 465
  Calcium Movements and Excitation-Contraction Coupling, 465
  Calcium Release and Uptake by the Sarcoplasmic Reticulum, 465
  Calcium Uptake by SERCA into the Sarcoplasmic Reticulum, 467

  SARCOLEMMAL CONTROL OF CALCIUM AND SODIUM IONS, 468
  Calcium and Sodium Channels, 468
  Ion Exchangers and Pumps, 468

  BETA-ADRENERGIC SIGNAL SYSTEMS, 469
  Beta-Adrenergic Receptor Subtypes, 469
  G Proteins, 469
  Alpha-Adrenergic Receptors, 470
  Cyclic Adenosine Monophosphate and Protein Kinase A, 471
  Physiologic Switch-Off and Beta-Arrestin Signaling, 472
  Beta2- and Beta3-Adrenergic Effects, 473

  CHOLINERGIC AND NITRIC OXIDE SIGNALING, 473
  Cholinergic Signaling, 473
  Nitric Oxide, the Ubiquitous Messenger,