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Part I – Fundamentals of Cardiovascular Disease

Chapter 1 – Global Burden of Cardiovascular Disease

Thomas A. Gaziano,
J. Michael Gaziano

  SHIFTING BURDENS, 1
  EPIDEMIOLOGIC TRANSITIONS, 1
  Is There a Fifth Phase: Age of Inactivity and Obesity?, 3

  EPIDEMIOLOGIC TRANSITION IN THE UNITED STATES, 3
  Age of Pestilence and Famine (Before 1900), 3
  Age of Receding Pandemics (1900-1930), 3
  Age of Degenerative Man-Made Diseases (1930-1965), 4
  Age of Delayed Degenerative Diseases (1965-2000), 4
  Age of Inactivity and Obesity, 5

  CURRENT WORLDWIDE VARIATIONS IN THE GLOBAL BURDEN OF CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE, 5
  High-Income Countries, 6
  Low- and Middle-Income Countries, 6
  Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Cardiovascular Disease, 10

  GLOBAL TRENDS IN CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE, 10
  RISK FACTORS, 10
  Hypertension, 10
  Tobacco, 11
  Lipids, 12
  Physical Inactivity, 12
  Diabetes, 12
  Obesity, 12
  Diet, 13
  Population Aging, 13
  By Region, 13

  ECONOMIC BURDEN, 15
  COST-EFFECTIVE SOLUTIONS, 16
  Established Cardiovascular Disease Management, 16
  Risk Assessment, 17
  Policy and …