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1. Warnes CA, Williams RG, Bashore TM, et al: ACC/AHA 2008 guidelines for the management of adults with congenital heart disease: A report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines (Writing Committee to Develop Guidelines on the Management of Adults With Congenital Heart Disease). Developed in Collaboration With the American Society of Echocardiography, Heart Rhythm Society, International Society for Adult Congenital Heart Disease, Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions, and Society of Thoracic Surgeons. J Am Coll Cardiol  2008; 52:e1.

2. Gatzoulis MA, Webb GD, Daubeney PEF: Diagnosis and Management of Adult Congenital Heart Disease.  Edinburgh, Churchill Livingstone, 2003.

Anatomy and Embryology

3. Bird GL, Jeffries HE, Licht DJ, et al: Neurological complications associated with the treatment of patients with congenital cardiac disease: Consensus definitions from the Multi-Societal Database Committee for Pediatric and Congenital Heart Disease. Cardiol Young  2008; 18(Suppl 2):234.

4. Thorne S, MacGregor A, Nelson-Piercy C: Risks of contraception and pregnancy in heart disease. Heart  2006; 92:1520.

Pathologic Consequences of Congenital Cardiac Lesions

5. Hosseinpour AR, Cullen S, Tsang VT: Transplantation for adults with congenital heart disease. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg  2006; 30:508.

6. Lamour JM, Kanter KR, Naftel DC, et al: The effect of age, diagnosis, and previous surgery in children and adults undergoing heart transplantation for congenital heart disease. J Am Coll Cardiol  2009; 54:160.


7. Oechslin E, Kiowski W, Schindler R, et al: Systemic endothelial dysfunction in adults with cyanotic congenital heart disease. Circulation  2005; 112:1106.

8. Fyfe A, Perloff JK, Niwa K, et al: Cyanotic congenital heart disease and coronary artery atherogenesis. Am J Cardiol  2005; 96:283.

9. Walker F, Mullen MJ, Woods SJ, Webb GD: Acute effects of 40% oxygen supplementation in adults with cyanotic congenital heart disease. Heart  2004; 90:1073.

Pulmonary Hypertension

10. Duffels MG, Engelfriet PM, Berger RM, et al: Pulmonary arterial hypertension in congenital heart disease: An epidemiologic perspective from a Dutch registry. Int J Cardiol  2007; 120:198.

11. McLaughlin VV, Archer SL, Badesch DB, et al: ACCF/AHA 2009 expert consensus document on pulmonary hypertension a report of the American College of Cardiology Foundation Task Force on Expert Consensus Documents and the American Heart Association developed in collaboration with the American College of Chest Physicians; American Thoracic Society, Inc.; and the Pulmonary Hypertension Association. J Am Coll Cardiol  2009; 53:1573.

12. Consensus statement on the management of pulmonary hypertension in clinical practice in the UK and Ireland. Thorax  2008; 63(Suppl 2):ii1.

13. Beghetti M, Galie N: Eisenmenger syndrome a clinical perspective in a new therapeutic era of pulmonary arterial hypertension. J Am Coll Cardiol  2009; 53:733.

14. Trulock EP, Christie JD, Edwards LB, et al: Registry of the International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation: Twenty-fourth official adult lung and heart-lung transplantation report—2007. J Heart Lung Transplant  2007; 26:782.

15. Galie N, Beghetti M, Gatzoulis MA, et al: Bosentan therapy in patients with Eisenmenger syndrome: A multicenter, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study. Circulation  2006; 114:48.

16. Christensen DD, McConnell ME, Book WM, Mahle WT: Initial experience with bosentan therapy in patients with the Eisenmenger syndrome. Am J Cardiol  2004; 94:261.

17. Duffels MG, Vis JC, van Loon RL, et al: Effect of bosentan on exercise capacity and quality of life in adults with pulmonary arterial hypertension associated with congenital heart disease with and without Down's syndrome. Am J Cardiol  2009; 103:1309.

18. Galie N, Ghofrani HA, Torbicki A, et al: Sildenafil citrate therapy for pulmonary arterial hypertension. N Engl J Med  2005; 353:2148.

19. Singh TP, Rohit M, Grover A, et al: A randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, crossover study to evaluate the efficacy of oral sildenafil therapy in severe pulmonary artery hypertension. Am Heart J  2006; 151:851.e1.

20. Garg N, Sharma MK, Sinha N: Role of oral sildenafil in severe pulmonary arterial hypertension: Clinical efficacy and dose response relationship. Int J Cardiol  2007; 120:306.

21. Chau EM, Fan KY, Chow WH: Effects of chronic sildenafil in patients with Eisenmenger syndrome versus idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension. Int J Cardiol  2007; 120:301.

22. Wort SJ: Sildenafil in Eisenmenger syndrome: Safety first. Int J Cardiol  2007; 120:314.

Infective Endocarditis

23. Wilson W, Taubert KA, Gewitz M, et al: Prevention of infective endocarditis: Guidelines from the American Heart Association: A guideline from the American Heart Association Rheumatic Fever, Endocarditis and Kawasaki Disease Committee, Council on Cardiovascular Disease in the Young, and the Council on Clinical Cardiology, Council on Cardiovascular Surgery and Anesthesia, and the Quality of Care and Outcomes Research Interdisciplinary Working Group. J Am Dent Assoc  2008; 139(Suppl):3S.

24. Gould FK, Elliott TS, Foweraker J, et al: Guidelines for the prevention of endocarditis: Report of the Working Party of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. J Antimicrob Chemother  2006; 57:1035.

Evaluation of the Patient with Congenital Heart Disease

25. Makikallio K, McElhinney DB, Levine JC, et al: Fetal aortic valve stenosis and the evolution of hypoplastic left heart syndrome: Patient selection for fetal intervention. Circulation  2006; 113:1401.

26. Barrea C, Levasseur S, Roman K, et al: Three-dimensional echocardiography improves the understanding of left atrioventricular valve morphology and function in atrioventricular septal defects undergoing patch augmentation. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg  2005; 129:746.

27. Sawada SG, Thomaides A: Three-dimensional stress echocardiography: The promise and limitations of volumetric imaging. Curr Opin Cardiol  2009; 24:426.

28. van den Bosch AE, Robbers-Visser D, Krenning BJ, et al: Real-time transthoracic three-dimensional echocardiographic assessment of left ventricular volume and ejection fraction in congenital heart disease. J Am Soc Echocardiogr  2006; 19:1.

29. Awad SM, Cao QL, Hijazi ZM: Intracardiac echocardiography for the guidance of percutaneous procedures. Curr Cardiol Rep  2009; 11:210.

30. Suematsu Y, Kiaii B, Bainbridge DT, et al: Robotic-assisted closure of atrial septal defect under real-time three-dimensional echo guide: In vitro study. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg  2007; 32:573.

31. Stephens DN, O'Donnell M, Thomenius K, et al: Experimental studies with a 9F forward-looking intracardiac imaging and ablation catheter. J Ultrasound Med  2009; 28:207.

32. Roberts KE, McElroy JJ, Wong WP, et al: BMPR2 mutations in pulmonary arterial hypertension with congenital heart disease. Eur Respir J  2004; 24:371.

33. Boccalandro F, Baptista E, Muench A, et al: Comparison of intracardiac echocardiography versus transesophageal echocardiography guidance for percutaneous transcatheter closure of atrial septal defect. Am J Cardiol  2004; 93:437.

34. Krumsdorf U, Ostermayer S, Billinger K, et al: Incidence and clinical course of thrombus formation on atrial septal defect and patient foramen ovale closure devices in 1,000 consecutive patients. J Am Coll Cardiol  2004; 43:302.

35. Masura J, Gavora P, Podnar T: Long-term outcome of transcatheter secundum-type atrial septal defect closure using Amplatzer septal occluders. J Am Coll Cardiol  2005; 45:505.

36. Cheung YF, Lun KS, Chau AK: Doppler tissue imaging analysis of ventricular function after surgical and transcatheter closure of atrial septal defect. Am J Cardiol  2004; 93:375.

37. Butera G, Carminati M, Chessa M, et al: Percutaneous versus surgical closure of secundum atrial septal defect: Comparison of early results and complications. Am Heart J  2006; 151:228.

38. Silversides CK, Siu SC, McLaughlin PR, et al: Symptomatic atrial arrhythmias and transcatheter closure of atrial septal defects in adult patients. Heart  2004; 90:1194.

39. Cramer SC, Rordorf G, Maki JH, et al: Increased pelvic vein thrombi in cryptogenic stroke: Results of the Paradoxical Emboli from Large Veins in Ischemic Stroke (PELVIS) study. Stroke  2004; 35:46.

40. Beda RD, Gill Jr EA: Patent foramen ovale: Does it play a role in the pathophysiology of migraine headache?. Cardiol Clin  2005; 23:91.

41. Windecker S, Wahl A, Nedeltchev K, et al: Comparison of medical treatment with percutaneous closure of patent foramen ovale in patients with cryptogenic stroke. J Am Coll Cardiol  2004; 44:750.

42. Schuchlenz HW, Weihs W, Berghold A, et al: Secondary prevention after cryptogenic cerebrovascular events in patients with patent foramen ovale. Int J Cardiol  2005; 101:77.

43. Wohrle J: Closure of patent foramen ovale after cryptogenic stroke. Lancet  2006; 368:350.

44. Ten Harkel AD, Cromme-Dijkhuis AH, Heinerman BC, et al: Development of left atrioventricular valve regurgitation after correction of atrioventricular septal defect. Ann Thorac Surg  2005; 79:607.

45. Murashita T, Kubota T, Oba J, et al: Left atrioventricular valve regurgitation after repair of incomplete atrioventricular septal defect. Ann Thorac Surg  2004; 77:2157.

46. Masuda M, Kado H, Tanoue Y, et al: Does Down syndrome affect the long-term results of complete atrioventricular septal defect when the defect is repaired during the first year of life?. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg  2005; 27:405.

47. Frid C, Bjorkhem G, Jonzon A, et al: Long-term survival in children with atrioventricular septal defect and common atrioventricular valvar orifice in Sweden. Cardiol Young  2004; 14:24.

48. Roos-Hesselink JW, Meijboom FJ, Spitaels SE, et al: Outcome of patients after surgical closure of ventricular septal defect at young age: Longitudinal follow-up of 22-34 years. Eur Heart J  2004; 25:1057.

49. Thanopoulos BD, Rigby ML: Outcome of transcatheter closure of muscular ventricular septal defects with the Amplatzer ventricular septal defect occluder. Heart  2005; 91:513.

50. Carminati M, Butera G, Chessa M, et al: Transcatheter closure of congenital ventricular septal defect with Amplatzer septal occluders. Am J Cardiol  2005; 96:52L.

51. Sadiq M, Latif F, Ur-Rehman A: Analysis of infective endarteritis in patent ductus arteriosus. Am J Cardiol  2004; 93:513.

52. Moore JW, Levi DS, Moore SD, et al: Interventional treatment of patent ductus arteriosus in 2004. Catheter Cardiovasc Interv  2005; 64:91.

Cyanotic Heart Disease

53. Oosterhof T, van Straten A, Vliegen HW, et al: Preoperative thresholds for pulmonary valve replacement in patients with corrected tetralogy of Fallot using cardiovascular magnetic resonance. Circulation  2007; 116:545.

54. Knauth AL, Gauvreau K, Powell AJ, et al: Ventricular size and function assessed by cardiac MRI predict major adverse clinical outcomes late after tetralogy of Fallot repair. Heart  2008; 94:211.

55. Yetman AT, Graham T: The dilated aorta in patients with congenital cardiac defects. J Am Coll Cardiol  2009; 53:461.

56. Lurz P, Coats L, Khambadkone S, et al: Percutaneous pulmonary valve implantation: Impact of evolving technology and learning curve on clinical outcome. Circulation  2008; 117:1964.

57. Lurz P, Bonhoeffer P, Taylor AM: Percutaneous pulmonary valve implantation: An update. Expert Rev Cardiovasc Ther  2009; 7:823.

58. Khambadkone S, Bonhoeffer P: Percutaneous pulmonary valve implantation. Semin Thorac Cardiovasc Surg Pediatr Card Surg Annu  2006; 23:

59. Wong T, Davlouros PA, Li W, et al: Mechano-electrical interaction late after Fontan operation: Relation between P-wave duration and dispersion, right atrial size, and atrial arrhythmias. Circulation  2004; 109:2319.

60. Rychik J: Protein-losing enteropathy after Fontan operation. Congenit Heart Dis  2007; 2:288.

61. Kiesewetter CH, Sheron N, Vettukattill JJ, et al: Hepatic changes in the failing Fontan circulation. Heart  2007; 93:579.

62. Rodriguez-Roisin R, Krowka MJ: Hepatopulmonary syndrome—a liver-induced lung vascular disorder. N Engl J Med  2008; 358:2378.

63. Mavroudis C, Backer CL, Deal BJ: Late reoperations for Fontan patients: State of the art invited review. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg  2008; 34:1034.

64. Prandstetter C, Hofer A, Lechner E, et al: Early and mid-term outcome of the arterial switch operation in 114 consecutive patients: A single centre experience. Clin Res Cardiol  2007; 96:723.

65. Bove T, De Meulder F, Vandenplas G, et al: Midterm assessment of the reconstructed arteries after the arterial switch operation. Ann Thorac Surg  2008; 85:823.

66. Lange R, Cleuziou J, Horer J, et al: Risk factors for aortic insufficiency and aortic valve replacement after the arterial switch operation. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg  2008; 34:711.

67. Horer J, Schreiber C, Dworak E, et al: Long-term results after the Rastelli repair for transposition of the great arteries. Ann Thorac Surg  2007; 83:2169.

68. Benzaquen BS, Webb GD, Colman JM, Therrien J: Arterial switch operation after Mustard procedures in adult patients with transposition of the great arteries: Is it time to revise our strategy?. Am Heart J  2004; 147:E8.

69. Khairy P, Landzberg MJ, Gatzoulis MA, et al: Transvenous pacing leads and systemic thromboemboli in patients with intracardiac shunts: A multicenter study. Circulation  2006; 113:2391.

70. Dore A, Houde C, Chan KL, et al: Angiotensin receptor blockade and exercise capacity in adults with systemic right ventricles: A multicenter, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Circulation  2005; 112:2411.

71. Therrien J, Provost Y, Harrison J, et al: Effect of angiotensin receptor blockade on systemic right ventricular function and size: A small, randomized, placebo-controlled study. Int J Cardiol  2008; 129:187.

72. Doughan AR, McConnell ME, Book WM: Effect of beta blockers (carvedilol or metoprolol XL) in patients with transposition of great arteries and dysfunction of the systemic right ventricle. Am J Cardiol  2007; 99:704.

73. Josephson CB, Howlett JG, Jackson SD, et al: A case series of systemic right ventricular dysfunction post atrial switch for simple d-transposition of the great arteries: The impact of beta-blockade. Can J Cardiol  2006; 22:769.

74. Guedes A, Mercier LA, Leduc L, et al: Impact of pregnancy on the systemic right ventricle after a Mustard operation for transposition of the great arteries. J Am Coll Cardiol  2004; 44:433.

75. Quinn DW, McGuirk SP, Metha C, et al: The morphologic left ventricle that requires training by means of pulmonary artery banding before the double-switch procedure for congenitally corrected transposition of the great arteries is at risk of late dysfunction. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg  2008; 135:1137.

76. Brown ML, Dearani JA, Danielson GK, et al: Comparison of the outcome of porcine bioprosthetic versus mechanical prosthetic replacement of the tricuspid valve in the Ebstein anomaly. Am J Cardiol  2009; 103:555.

77. Quinonez LG, Dearani JA, Puga FJ, et al: Results of the 1.5-ventricle repair for Ebstein anomaly and the failing right ventricle. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg  2007; 133:1303.

78. Dearani JA, Danielson GK: Surgical management of Ebstein's anomaly in the adult. Semin Thorac Cardiovasc Surg  2005; 17:148.

79. Khositseth A, Danielson GK, Dearani JA, et al: Supraventricular tachyarrhythmias in Ebstein anomaly: Management and outcome. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg  2004; 128:826.

80. Brown ML, Dearani JA, Danielson GK, et al: Functional status after operation for Ebstein anomaly: The Mayo Clinic experience. J Am Coll Cardiol  2008; 52:460.

Valvular and Vascular Conditions

81. Fiore AC, Fischer LK, Schwartz T, et al: Comparison of angioplasty and surgery for neonatal aortic coarctation. Ann Thorac Surg  2005; 80:1659.

82. Karamlou T, Bernasconi A, Jaeggi E, et al: Factors associated with arch reintervention and growth of the aortic arch after coarctation repair in neonates weighing less than 2.5 kg. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg  2009; 137:1163.

83. Wong D, Benson LN, Van Arsdell GS, et al: Balloon angioplasty is preferred to surgery for aortic coarctation. Cardiol Young  2008; 18:79.

84. Ou P, Celermajer DS, Raisky O, et al: Angular (Gothic) aortic arch leads to enhanced systolic wave reflection, central aortic stiffness, and increased left ventricular mass late after aortic coarctation repair: Evaluation with magnetic resonance flow mapping. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg  2008; 135:62.

85. Fawzy ME, Fathala A, Osman A, et al: Twenty-two years of follow-up results of balloon angioplasty for discreet native coarctation of the aorta in adolescents and adults. Am Heart J  2008; 156:910.

86. Oliver JM, Gallego P, Gonzalez A, et al: Risk factors for aortic complications in adults with coarctation of the aorta. J Am Coll Cardiol  2004; 44:1641.

87. Hager A, Kanz S, Kaemmerer H, et al: Coarctation Long-term Assessment (COALA): Significance of arterial hypertension in a cohort of 404 patients up to 27 years after surgical repair of isolated coarctation of the aorta, even in the absence of restenosis and prosthetic material. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg  2007; 134(738):

88. Pacini D, Bergonzini M, Loforte A, et al: Aneurysms after coarctation repair associated with hypoplastic aortic arch: Surgical management through median sternotomy. Ann Thorac Surg  2006; 81:758.

89. Tzifa A, Ewert P, Brzezinska-Rajszys G, et al: Covered Cheatham-platinum stents for aortic coarctation: Early and intermediate-term results. J Am Coll Cardiol  2006; 47:1457.

90. Suzuki T, Ohye RG, Devaney EJ, et al: Selective management of the left ventricular outflow tract for repair of interrupted aortic arch with ventricular septal defect: Management of left ventricular outflow tract obstruction. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg  2006; 131:779.

91. Chiu PP, Rusan M, Williams WG, et al: Long-term outcomes of clinically significant vascular rings associated with congenital tracheal stenosis. J Pediatr Surg  2006; 41:335.

92. Hickey EJ, Caldarone CA, Blackstone EH, et al: Critical left ventricular outflow tract obstruction: The disproportionate impact of biventricular repair in borderline cases. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg  2007; 134:1429.

93. Dodge-Khatami A, Schmid M, Rousson V, et al: Risk factors for reoperation after relief of congenital subaortic stenosis. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg  2008; 33:885.

94. Hickey EJ, Jung G, Williams WG, et al: Congenital supravalvular aortic stenosis: Defining surgical and nonsurgical outcomes. Ann Thorac Surg  2008; 86:1919.

95. Scott DJ, Campbell DN, Clarke DR, et al: Twenty-year surgical experience with congenital supravalvar aortic stenosis. Ann Thorac Surg  2009; 87:1501.

96. Schaverien MV, Freedom RM, McCrindle BW: Independent factors associated with outcomes of parachute mitral valve in 84 patients. Circulation  2004; 109:2309.

97. McElhinney DB, Sherwood MC, Keane JF, et al: Current management of severe congenital mitral stenosis: Outcomes of transcatheter and surgical therapy in 108 infants and children. Circulation  2005; 112:707.

98. Macnab A, Jenkins NP, Ewington I, et al: A method for the morphological analysis of the regurgitant mitral valve using three dimensional echocardiography. Heart  2004; 90:771.

99. Oppido G, Davies B, McMullan DM, et al: Surgical treatment of congenital mitral valve disease: Midterm results of a repair-oriented policy. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg  2008; 135:1313.

100. Chauvaud S: Congenital mitral valve surgery: Techniques and results. Curr Opin Cardiol  2006; 21:95.

101. Silvilairat S, Cabalka AK, Cetta F, et al: Echocardiographic assessment of isolated pulmonary valve stenosis: Which outpatient Doppler gradient has the most clinical validity?. J Am Soc Echocardiogr  2005; 18:1137.

102. Karagoz T, Asoh K, Hickey E, et al: Balloon dilation of pulmonary valve stenosis in infants less than 3 kg: A 20-year experience. Catheter Cardiovasc Interv  2009; 74:753.

103. Earing MG, Connolly HM, Dearani JA, et al: Long-term follow-up of patients after surgical treatment for isolated pulmonary valve stenosis. Mayo Clin Proc  2005; 80:871.