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Part VIII – Diseases of the Heart, Pericardium, and Pulmonary Vasculature Bed

Chapter 65 – Congenital Heart Disease

Gary D. Webb,
Jeffrey F. Smallhorn,
Judith Therrien,
Andrew N. Redington

  ETIOLOGY, 1412
  PREVENTION, 1413
  ANATOMY AND EMBRYOLOGY, 1413
  Embryology, 1413
  Normal Cardiac Anatomy, 1413
  Fetal and Transitional Circulations, 1414

  PATHOLOGIC CONSEQUENCES OF CONGENITAL CARDIAC LESIONS, 1416
  Congestive Heart Failure, 1416
  Cyanosis, 1416
  Pulmonary Hypertension, 1417
  Eisenmenger Syndrome, 1418
  Cardiac Arrhythmias, 1419
  Infective Endocarditis, 1420
  Chest Pain, 1420
  Syndromes in Congenital Heart Disease, 1420

  EVALUATION OF THE PATIENT WITH CONGENITAL HEART DISEASE, 1421
  Physical Examination, 1421
  Electrocardiography, 1421
  Chest Radiography, 1421
  Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance Imaging, 1422
  Transthoracic Echocardiography, 1422
  Transesophageal Echocardiography, 1424
  Three-Dimensional Echocardiography, 1425
  Intracardiac Echocardiography, 1425
  Cardiac Catheterization, 1425

  SPECIFIC CARDIAC DEFECTS, 1426
  Left-to-Right Shunts, 1426