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Chapter 465 – MACULAR, PAPULAR, VESICULOBULLOUS, AND PUSTULAR DISEASES

Neil J. Korman

MACULAR AND PAPULAR EXANTHEMS

An exanthem is an acute generalized eruption of the skin, and there are two major types: scarlatiniform eruptions and morbilliform eruptions. Scarlatiniform eruptions consist of confluent blanching erythema; their name was derived from their similarity to the eruption of scarlet fever (Table 465-1). Morbilliform eruptions consist of erythematous macules and papules; they are named for their resemblance to the measles eruption. Morbilliform eruptions can be caused by exposure to medications ( Chapter 466) or viral infections.

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Scarlatiniform Eruptions

Scarlet Fever

Scarlet fever is caused by infection of the ears, nose, throat, and skin with toxin-producing β-hemolytic streptococci ( Chapter 312). It most commonly occurs in children after streptococcal wound infections, burns, and upper respiratory tract infections. Occasional cases of scarlet fever can also be caused by Staphylococcus …