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References

General

Gustilo et al., 1987. Gustilo RB, Gruninger RP, Davis T: Classification of type III (severe) open fractures relative to treatment and results. Orthopedics  1987; 10:1781.

Gustilo et al., 1984. Gustilo RB, Mendoza RM, Williams DN: Problems in the management of type III (severe) open fractures: a new classification of type III open fractures. J Trauma  1984; 24:742.

Hardin, 1990. Hardin GT: Timing of fracture fixation: a review. Orthop Rev  1990; 19:861.

Swiontkowski et al., 2002. Swiontkowski MF, MacKenzie EJ, Bosse MJ, et al: Factors influencing the decision to amputate or reconstruct after high-energy lower extremity trauma. J Trauma  2002; 52:641.


Ankle (Pilon Fractures)

Ahl et al., 1989. Ahl T, Dalen N, Selvik G: Ankle fractures: a clinical and roentgenographic stereophotogrammetric study. Clin Orthop Relat Res  1989; 245:246.

Amendola, 1992. Amendola A: Controversies in diagnosis and management of syndesmosis injuries of the ankle. Foot Ankle  1992; 13:44.

Anderson and Hansen, 1996. Anderson JG, Hansen ST: Fracture-dislocation of the ankle with posterior tibial tendon entrapment within the tibiofibular interosseous space: a case report of a late diagnosis. Foot Ankle Int  1996; 17:114.

Anglen, 1999. Anglen JO: Early outcome of hybrid external fixation for fracture of the distal tibia. J Orthop Trauma  1999; 13:92.

Ayeni, 1988. Ayeni JP: Pilon fractures of the tibia: a study based on 19 cases. Injury  1988; 19:109.

Barbieri et al., 1996. Barbieri R, Schenk R, Koval K, et al: Hybrid external fixation in the treatment of tibial plafond fractures. Clin Orthop Relat Res  1996; 332:16.

Bauer et al., 1985. Bauer M, Jonsson K, Nilsson B: Thirty-year follow-up of ankle fractures. Acta Orthop Scand  1985; 56:103.

Beauchamp et al., 1983. Beauchamp CG, Clay NR, Thexton PW: Displaced ankle fractures in patients over 50 years of age. J Bone Joint Surg  1983; 65B:329.

Bhattacharyya, 2006. Bhattacharyya T: Case controversy. Position: open reduction and internal fixation. J Orthop Trauma  2006; 20:512.

Bhattacharyya et al., 2006. Bhattacharyya T, Crichlow R, Gobezie R, et al: Complications associated with the posterolateral approach for pilon fractures. J Orthop Trauma  2006; 20:104.

Blauth et al., 2001. Blauth M, Bastian L, Krettek C, et al: Surgical options for the treatment of severe tibial pilon fractures: a study of three techniques. J Orthop Trauma  2001; 15:153.

Blotter et al., 1999. Blotter RH, Connolly E, Wasan A, et al: Acute complications in the operative treatment of isolated ankle fractures in patients with diabetes mellitus. Foot Ankle Int  1999; 20:687.

Boden and Osbahr, 2000. Boden BP, Osbahr DC: High-risk stress fractures: evaluation and treatment. J Am Acad Orthop Surg  2000; 8:344.

Boden et al., 1989. Boden SD, Labropoulos PA, McCowin P, et al: Mechanical considerations for the syndesmosis screw. J Bone Joint Surg  1989; 71A:1548.

Bonar and Marsh, 1993. Bonar SK, Marsh JL: Unilateral external fixation for severe pilon fractures. Foot Ankle  1993; 14:57.

Bone, 1987. Bone LB: Fractures of the tibial plafond: the pilon fracture. Orthop Clin North Am  1987; 18:95.

Borens et al., 2006. Borens O, Kloen P, Richmond J, et al: Minimally invasive treatment of pilon fractures with a low profile plate: preliminary results in 17 cases. Arch Orthop Trauma Surg  2006.[epub ahead of print].

Borrelli and Ellis, 2002. Borrelli Jr J, Ellis E: Pilon fractures: assessment and treatment. Orthop Clin North Am  2002; 33:231.

Borrelli et al., 2002. Borrelli J, Prickett W, Song E, et al: Extraosseous blood supply of the tibia and effects of different plating techniques: a human cadaver study. J Orthop Trauma  2002; 16:691.

Böstman, 1988. Böstman OM: Displaced malleolar fractures associated with spiral fractures of the tibial shaft. Clin Orthop  1988; 228:202.

Böstman, 1992. Böstman OM: Intense granulomatous inflammatory lesions associated with absorbable internal fixation devices made of polyglycolide in ankle fractures. Clin Orthop  1992; 278:193.

Böstman et al., 1989. Böstman OM, Hirvensalo E, Vainionpaa S, et al: Ankle fractures treated using biodegradable internal fixation. Clin Orthop Relat Res  1989; 238:195.

Böstman and Pihlajamake, 2000. Böstman OM, Pihlajamake HK: Adverse tissue reactions to bioabsorbable fixation devices. Clin Orthop Relat Res  2000; 371:216.

Bosworth, 1947. Bosworth DM: Fracture-dislocation of the ankle with fixed displacement of the fibula behind the tibia. J Bone Joint Surg  1947; 29:130.

Bourne et al., 1983. Bourne RB, Rorabeck CH, Macnab J: Intraarticular fractures of the distal tibia: the pilon fracture. J Trauma  1983; 23:591.

Bray et al., 1989. Bray TJ, Endicott M, Capra SE: Treatment of open ankle fractures: immediate internal fixation versus closed immobilization and delayed fixation. Clin Orthop Relat Res  1989; 240:47.

Breederveld et al., 1988. Breederveld RS, van Straaten J, Patka P, et al: Immediate or delayed operative treatment of fractures of the ankle. Injury  1988; 19:436.

Brodie and Denham, 1974. Brodie IAOD, Denham RA: The treatment of unstable ankle fractures. J Bone Joint Surg  1974; 56B:256.

Brown et al., 2001. Brown OL, Dirschl DR, Obremskey WT: Incidence of hardware-related pain and its effect on functional outcomes after open reduction and internal fixation of ankle fractures. J Orthop Trauma  2001; 15:271.

Brown et al., 1994. Brown TD, Hurlbut PT, Hale JE, et al: Effects of imposed hindfoot constraint on contact mechanics of displaced lateral malleolar fractures. Trans Orthop Res Soc  1994; 40:257.

Bucholz et al., 1994. Bucholz RW, Henry S, Henley MB: Fixation with bioabsorbable screws for the treatment of fractures of the ankle. J Bone Joint Surg  1994; 76A:325.

Burns et al., 1993. Burns II WC, Prakash K, Adelaar R, et al: Tibiotalar joint dynamics: indications for the syndesmotic screw—a cadaver study. Foot Ankle  1993; 14:153.

Burwell and Charnley, 1965. Burwell HN, Charnley AD: The treatment of displaced fractures at the ankle by rigid internal fixation and early joint movement. J Bone Joint Surg  1965; 47B:634.

Candal-Couto et al., 2004. Candal-Couto JJ, Burrow D, Bromage S, et al: Instability of the tibio-fibular syndesmosis: have we been pulling in the wrong direction?. Injury Int J Care  2004; 35:814.

Carothers and Crenshaw, 1955. Carothers CO, Crenshaw AH: Clinical significance of a classification of epiphyseal injuries at the ankle. Am J Surg  1955; 89:879.

Casey et al., 2002. Casey D, McConnell T, Parekh S, et al: Percutaneous pin placement in the medial calcaneus: is anywhere safe?. J Orthop Trauma  2002; 16:26.

Childress, 1965. Childress HM: Vertical transarticular pin fixation for unstable ankle fractures. J Bone Joint Surg  1965; 47A:1323.

Cole and Benirschke, 1999. Cole PA, Benirschke SK: Minimally invasive surgery for the pilon fracture: the percutaneous-submuscular plating technique. Tech Orthop  1999; 14:201.

Collinge and Sanders, 2000. Collinge CA, Sanders RW: Percutaneous plating in the lower extremity. J Am Acad Orthop Surg  2000; 8:211.

Coonrad and Bugg, 1954. Coonrad RW, Bugg Jr EL: Trapping of the posterior tibial tendon and interposition of soft tissue in severe fractures about the ankle joint. J Bone Joint Surg  1954; 36A:744.

Court-Brown et al., 1999. Court-Brown CM, Walker C, Garg A, et al: Half-ring external fixation in the management of tibial plafond fractures. J Orthop Trauma  1999; 13:200.

Crenshaw, 1965. Crenshaw AH: Injuries of the distal tibial epiphysis. Clin Orthop Relat Res  1965; 41:98.

Curry et al., 1999. Curry EE, O'Brien TS, Johnson JE: Fibular nonunion and equinovarus deformity secondary to posterior tibial tendon incarceration in the syndesmosis: a case report after a bimalleolar fracture-dislocation. Foot Ankle Int  1999; 20:527.

Dabezies et al., 1978. Dabezies E, D'Ambrosia RD, Shoji H: Classification and treatment of ankle fractures. Orthopedics  1978; 1:365.

Dahners, 1990. Dahners LE: The pathogenesis and treatment of bimalleolar ankle fractures. Instr Course Lect  1990; 39:85.

DeCoster et al., 1999. DeCoster TA, Willis MC, Marsh JL, et al: Rank order analysis of tibial plafond fractures: does injury or reduction predict outcome?. Foot Ankle Int  1999; 20:44.

Dickson et al., 2001. Dickson KF, Montgomery S, Field J: High energy plafond fractures treated by a spanning external fixator initially and followed by a second stage open reduction internal fixation of the articular surface—preliminary report. Injury  2001; 32(suppl D):92.

Donatto, 2001. Donatto KC: Ankle fractures and syndesmosis injuries. Orthop Clin North Am  2001; 32:79.

Ebraheim et al., 1999. Ebraheim NA, Mekhail AO, Haman SP: External rotation-lateral view of the ankle in the assessment of the posterior malleolus. Foot Ankle Int  1999; 20:379.

Egol et al., 2006. Egol KA, Weisz R, Hiebert R, et al: Does fibular plating improve alignment after intramedullary nailing of distal metaphyseal tibia fractures?. J Orthop Trauma  2006; 20:94.

Egol et al., 2000. Egol KA, Wolinsky P, Koval KJ: Open reduction and internal fixation of tibial pilon fractures. Foot Ankle Clin  2000; 5:873.

El-Shazly et al., 2001. El-Shazly M, Dalbyu Ball J, Burton M, et al: The use of transarticular and extraarticular external fixation for management of distal tibial intraarticular fractures. Injury  2001; 32(suppl 4):99.

Etter and Ganz, 1991. Etter C, Ganz R: Long-term results of tibial plafond fractures treated with open reduction and internal fixation. Arch Orthop Trauma Surg  1991; 11:227.

Finsen et al., 1989. Finsen V, Saetermo R, Kibsgaard L, et al: Early postoperative weight-bearing and muscle activity in patients who have a fracture of the ankle. J Bone Joint Surg  1989; 71A:23.

Franklin et al., 1984. Franklin JL, Johnson KD, Hansen Jr ST: Immediate internal fixation of open ankle fractures: report of thirty-eight cases treated with a standard protocol. J Bone Joint Surg  1984; 66A:1349.

French and Tornetta, 2000. French B, Tornetta III P: Hybrid external fixation of tibial pilon fractures. Foot Ankle Clin  2000; 5:853.

Frokjaer and Möller, 1992. Frokjaer J, Möller BN: Biodegradable fixation of ankle fractures: complications in a prospective study of 25 cases. Acta Orthop Scand  1992; 63:434.

Gaston and McLaughlin, 1961. Gaston S, McLaughlin HL: Complex fractures of the lateral malleolus. J Trauma  1961; 1:69.

Gatellier, 1931. Gatellier J: The juxtaretroperoneal route in the operative treatment of fracture of the malleolus with posterior marginal fragment. Surg Gynecol Obstet  1931; 52:67.

Gatellier and Chastang, 1924. Gatellier J, Chastang B: Access to fractured malleolus with piece chipped off at back. J Chir  1924; 24:513.

Giachino and Hammond, 1987. Giachino AA, Hammond DI: The relationship between oblique fractures of the medial malleolus and concomitant fractures of the anterolateral aspect of the tibial plafond. J Bone Joint Surg  1987; 69A:381.

Grantham, 1990. Grantham SA: Trimalleolar ankle fractures and open ankle fractures. Instr Course Lect  1990; 39:105.

Harper and Hardin, 1988. Harper MC, Hardin G: Posterior malleolar fractures of the ankle associated with external rotation-abduction injuries: results with and without internal fixation. J Bone Joint Surg  1988; 70A:1348.

Hayes and Nadkarni, 1996. Hayes AG, Nadkarni JB: Extensile posterior approach to the ankle. J Bone Joint Surg  1996; 78B:468.

Helfet et al., 1997. Helfet DL, Shonnard PY, Levine D, et al: Minimally invasive plate osteosynthesis of distal fractures of the tibia. Injury  1997; 28:42.

Helfet et al., 1999. Helfet DL, Sorkin AT, Levine DS, et al: Minimally invasive plate osteosynthesis of distal tibial fractures. Tech Orthop  1999; 14:191.

Herscovici et al., 1999. Herscovici D, Sanders RW, Infante A: Böhler incision: an extensile anterolateral approach to the foot and ankle. J Orthop Trauma  1999; 13:586.

Hirvensalo, 1989. Hirvensalo E: Fracture fixation with biodegradable rods: forty-one cases of severe ankle fractures. Acta Orthop Scand  1989; 60:601.

Hovis and Bucholz, 1997. Hovis WD, Bucholz RW: Polyglycolide bioabsorbable screws in the treatment of ankle fractures. Foot Ankle Int  1997; 18:128.

Hovis et al., 2002. Hovis WD, Kaiser BW, Watson JT, et al: Treatment of syndesmotic disruptions of the ankle with bioabsorbable screw fixation. J Bone Joint Surg  2002; 84A:26.

Hughes et al., 1979. Hughes JL, Weber H, Willenegger H, et al: Evaluation of ankle fractures: nonoperative and operative treatment. Clin Orthop Relat Res  1979; 138:111.

Johnson and Hill, 1988. Johnson DP, Hill J: Fracture-dislocation of the ankle with rupture of the deltoid ligament. Injury  1988; 19:59.

Johnson and Davlin, 1993. Johnson EE, Davlin LB: Open ankle fractures: the indications for immediate open reduction and internal fixation. Clin Orthop  1993; 292:118.

Joy et al., 1974. Joy G, Patzakis MJ, Harvey Jr JP: Precise evaluation of the reduction of severe ankle fractures: technique and correlation with end results. J Bone Joint Surg  1974; 56A:979.

Kao et al., 2000. Kao KF, Huang PJ, Chen YW, et al: Postero-medio-anterior approach of the ankle for the pilon fracture. Injury  2000; 31:71.

Kaye, 1989. Kaye RA: Stabilization of ankle syndesmosis injuries with a syndesmosis screw. Foot Ankle  1989; 9:290.

Kellam and Waddell, 1979. Kellam JF, Waddell JP: Fractures of the distal tibial metaphysis with intraarticular extension—the distal tibial explosion fracture. J Trauma  1979; 19:593.

Ketenjian and Shelton, 1972. Ketenjian AY, Shelton ML: Primary internal fixation of open fractures: a retrospective study of the use of metallic internal fixation in fresh open fractures. J Trauma  1972; 12:756.

Kim and Oh, 1999. Kim SK, Oh JK: One or two lag screws for fixation of Danis-Weber type B fractures of the ankle. J Trauma  1999; 46:1039.

Konrath and Hopkins, 1999. Konrath GA, Hopkins II G: Posterolateral approach for tibial pilon fractures: a report of two cases. J Orthop Trauma  1999; 13:586.

Konvath et al., 1995. Konvath G, Karges D, Watson JT, et al: Early versus delayed treatment of severe ankle fracture: a comparison of results. J Orthop Trauma  1995; 9:377.

Koval et al., 1997. Koval KJ, Petraco DM, Kummer FJ, et al: A new technique for complex fibula fracture fixation in the elderly: a clinical and biomechanical evaluation. J Orthop Trauma  1997; 11:28.

Kristensen and Hansen, 1985. Kristensen KD, Hansen T: Closed treatment of ankle fractures: stage II supination-eversion fractures followed for 20 years. Acta Orthop Scand  1985; 56:107.

Laskin, 1974. Laskin RS: Steinmann pin fixation in the treatment of unstable fractures of the ankle. J Bone Joint Surg  1974; 56A:549.

Lauge-Hansen, 1950. Lauge-Hansen N: Fractures of the ankle, II: combined experimental-surgical and experimental-roentgenologic investigations. Arch Surg  1950; 60:957.

Lauge-Hansen, 1953. Lauge-Hansen N: Fractures of the ankle, V: pronation-dorsiflexion fracture. Arch Surg  1953; 67:813.

Leach, 1979. Leach RE: Ankle fractures: internal fixation, III: fractures of the tibial plafond. Instr Course Lect  1979; 28:88.

Lee and Horan, 1943. Lee HG, Horan TB: Internal fixation in injuries of the ankle. Surg Gynecol Obstet  1943; 76:593.

Loren and Ferkel, 2002. Loren GJ, Ferkel RD: Arthroscopic assessment of occult intraarticular injury in acute ankle fractures. Arthroscopy  2002; 18:412.

Lynn, 1972. Lynn MD: The triplane distal tibial epiphyseal fracture. Clin Orthop Relat Res  1972; 86:187.

Maale and Seligson, 1980. Maale G, Seligson D: Fractures through the weight-bearing surface of the distal tibia. Orthopedics  1980; 3:517.

Makwana et al., 2001. Makwana NK, Bhowal B, Harper WM, et al: Conservative versus operative treatment for displaced ankle fracture in patients over 55 years of age: a prospective, randomized study. J Bone Joint Surg  2001; 83B:525.

Marmor, 1970. Marmor L: An unusual fracture of the tibial epiphysis. Clin Orthop  1970; 73:132.

Marsh, 1999. Marsh JL: Current controversies in orthopaedic trauma: external fixation is the treatment of choice for fractures of the tibial plafond. J Orthop Trauma  1999; 13:583.

Marsh et al., 1995. Marsh JL, Bonar S, Nepola JV, et al: Use of an articulated external fixator for fractures of the tibial plafond. J Bone Joint Surg  1995; 77A:1498.

Marsh et al., 2006. Marsh JL, Muehling V, Dirschl D, et al: Tibial plafond fractures treated by articulated external fixation: a randomized trial of postoperative motion versus nonmotion. J Orthop Trauma  2006; 20:536.

Marsh et al., 2003. Marsh JL, Weigel DP, Dirschl DR: Tibial plafond fractures: how do these ankles function over time?. J Bone Joint Surg  2003; 85A:287.

Mast, 1987. Mast J: Reduction techniques in fractures of the distal tibial articular surface. Tech Orthop  1987; 2:29.

Mast et al., 1988. Mast JW, Spiegel PG, Pappas JN: Fractures of the tibial pilon. Clin Orthop Relat Res  1988; 230:68.

McCormack and Leith, 1998. McCormack RG, Leith JM: Ankle fractures in diabetics: complications of surgical management. J Bone Joint Surg  1998; 80B:689.

McDade, 1975. McDade WC: Diagnosis and treatment of ankle injuries. Instr Course Lect  1975; 24:251.

McLennan and Ungersma, 1989. McLennan JG, Ungersma J: Evaluation of the treatment of ankle fractures with the Inyo nail. J Orthop Trauma  1989; 2:272.

Meyers, 1965. Meyers MH: Fracture about the ankle joint with fixed displacement of the proximal fragment of the fibula behind the tibia. Clin Orthop Relat Res  1965; 42:67.

Michelson, 1995. Michelson JD: Current concepts review: fractures about the ankle. J Bone Joint Surg  1995; 77A:142.

Michelson et al., 1994. Michelson JD, Helgemo SL, Ahn UM: Dynamic biomechanics of the normal and fractured ankle. Trans Orthop Res Soc  1994; 40:253.

Molinari et al., 1990. Molinari M, Bertoldi L, De March L: Fracture dislocation of the ankle with the fibula trapped behind the tibia: a case report. Acta Orthop Scand  1990; 61:471.

Müller et al., 1979. Müller ME, Allgöwer M, Schneider R, et al: Manual of internal fixation: techniques recommended by the AO group,  2nd ed. New York, Springer-Verlag, 1979.

Myerson and Edwards, 1999. Myerson MS, Edwards WHB: Management of neuropathic fractures in the foot and ankle. J Am Acad Orthop Surg  1999; 7:8.

Namba et al., 1991. Namba RS, Kabo JM, Dorey FJ, et al: Continuous passive motion versus immobilization: the effect on posttraumatic joint stiffness. Clin Orthop Relat Res  1991; 267:218.

Needleman et al., 1989. Needleman RL, Skrade DA, Stiehl JB: Effect of the syndesmotic screw on ankle motion. Foot Ankle  1989; 10:17.

Ngcelwane, 1990. Ngcelwane MV: Management of open fractures of the ankle joint. Injury  1990; 21:93.

Nielsen et al., 1990. Nielsen JO, Dons-Jensen H, Sorensen HT: Lauge-Hansen classification of malleolar fractures: an assessment of the reproducibility in 118 cases. Acta Orthop Scand  1990; 61:385.

Okcu and Aktuglu, 2004. Okcu G, Aktuglu K: Intra-articular fractures of the tibial plafond: a comparison of the results using articulated and ring external fixators. J Bone Joint Surg  2004; 86B:868.

O'Leary and Ward, 1989. O'Leary C, Ward FJ: A unique closed abduction-external rotation ankle fracture. J Trauma  1989; 29:119.

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Orava et al., 1995. Orava S, Karpakka J, Taimela S, et al: Stress fracture of medial malleolus. J Bone Joint Surg  1995; 77A:362.

Ostrum, 1996. Ostrum RF: Posterior plating of displaced Weber B fibula fractures. J Orthop Trauma  1996; 10:199.

Ovadia and Beals, 1986. Ovadia DN, Beals RK: Fractures of the tibial plafond. J Bone Joint Surg  1986; 68A:543.

Pankovich, 1979. Pankovich AM: Fractures of the fibula at the distal tibiofibular syndesmosis. Clin Orthop Relat Res  1979; 143:138.

Pankovich and Shivaram, 1979. Pankovich AM, Shivaram MS: Anatomical basis of variability in injuries of the medial malleolus and the deltoid ligament, I: anatomical studies; II: II:. clinical studies. Acta Orthop Scand  1979; 50:217.

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Park et al., 2006. Park SS, Kubiak EN, Egol KA, et al: Stress radiographs after ankle fracture: the effect of ankle position and deltoid ligament status on medial clear space measurements. J Orthop Trauma  2006; 20:11.

Parrish, 1959. Parrish TF: Fracture dislocation of the ankle—an unusual cause of failure of reduction: a case report. J Bone Joint Surg  1959; 41A:749.

Patterson and Cole, 1999. Patterson MJ, Cole JD: Two-staged delayed open reduction and internal fixation of severe pilon fractures. J Orthop Trauma  1999; 13:85.

Peter et al., 1994. Peter RE, Harrington RM, Henley MB, et al: Biomechanical effects of internal fixation of the distal tibiofibular syndesmotic joint: comparison of two fixation techniques. J Orthop Trauma  1994; 8:215.

Petrisor et al., 2006. Petrisor BA, Poolman R, Koval K, et al: Management of displaced ankle fractures. J Orthop Trauma  2006; 20:515.

Pettrone et al., 1983. Pettrone FA, Gail M, Pee D, et al: Quantitative criteria for prediction of the results after displaced fracture of the ankle. J Bone Joint Surg  1983; 65A:66.

Phillips et al., 1985. Phillips WA, Schwartz HS, Keller CS, et al: A prospective, randomized study of the management of severe ankle fractures. J Bone Joint Surg  1985; 67A:67.

Phillips and Spiegel, 1979. Phillips WA, Spiegel PG: Evaluation of ankle fractures: nonoperative vs operative. Clin Orthop Relat Res  1979; 138:17.(editorial)

Pierce and Heinrich, 1979. Pierce Jr RO, Heinrich JH: Comminuted intraarticular fractures of the distal tibia. J Trauma  1979; 19:828.

Pollak et al., 2003. Pollak AN, McCarthy ML, Bess RS, et al: Outcomes after treatment of high-energy tibial plafond fractures. J Bone Joint Surg  2003; 85A:1893.

Pugh et al., 1999. Pugh KJ, Wolinsky PR, McAndrew MP, et al: Tibial pilon fractures: a comparison of treatment methods. J Trauma  1999; 47:937.

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Roberts, 1983. Roberts RS: Surgical treatment of displaced ankle fractures. Clin Orthop Relat Res  1983; 172:164.

Rokkanen et al., 2000. Rokkanen PU, Böstman O, Hirvensalo E, et al: Bioabsorbable fixation in orthopaedic surgery and traumatology. Biomaterials  2000; 21:2607.

Rüedi, 1973. Rüedi T: Fractures of the lower end of the tibia into the ankle joint: results 9 years after open reduction and internal fixation. Injury  1973; 5:130.

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Hamza et al., 1971. Hamza KN, Dunkerley GE, Murray CMM: Fractures of the tibia: a report on fifty patients treated by intramedullary nailing. J Bone Joint Surg  1971; 53B:696.

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Tibial Condyle and Tibial Plateau

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Jennings, 1986. Jennings JE: Letters to the editors. Arthroscopy  1986; 2:133.

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Lee, 1957. Lee HG: Osteoplastic reconstruction in severe fractures of the tibial condyles: utilization of the anterior superior iliac spine. Am J Surg  1957; 94:940.

Lemon and Bartlett, 1985. Lemon RA, Bartlett DH: Arthroscopic assisted internal fixation of certain fractures about the knee. J Trauma  1985; 25:355.

Lobenhoffer et al., 1999. Lobenhoffer P, Schulze M, Gerich T, et al: Closed reduction/percutaneous fixation of tibial plateau fractures: arthroscopic versus fluoroscopic control of reduction. J Orthop Trauma  1999; 13:426.

Lucht and Pilgaard, 1971. Lucht U, Pilgaard S: Fractures of the tibial condyles. Acta Orthop Scand  1971; 42:366.

Marmor, 1988. Marmor L: Fracture as a complication of osteonecrosis of the tibial plateau: case report. J Bone Joint Surg  1988; 70A:454.

Marsh et al., 1995. Marsh JL, Smith ST, Do TT: External fixation and limited internal fixation for complex fractures of the tibial plateau. J Bone Joint Surg  1995; 77A:661.

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McConkey and Meeuwisse, 1988. McConkey JP, Meeuwisse W: Tibial plateau fractures in alpine skiing. Am J Sports Med  1988; 16:159.

McDonnell and Butler, 1988. McDonnell MF, Butler III JE: Osteochondral fracture of the tibial plateau in a ballerina. Am J Sports Med  1988; 16:417.

Meyers and Harvey, 1971. Meyers MH, Harvey JP: Traumatic dislocation of the knee joint. J Bone Joint Surg  1971; 53A:16.

Meyers and McKeever, 1970. Meyers MH, McKeever FM: Fracture of the intercondylar eminence of the tibia. J Bone Joint Surg  1970; 52A:1677.

Meyers et al., 1975. Meyers MH, Moore TM, Harvey JP: Traumatic dislocation of the knee joint. J Bone Joint Surg  1975; 57A:430.

Mills and Nork, 2002. Mills WJ, Nork SE: Open reduction and internal fixation of high-energy tibial plateau fractures. Orthop Clin North Am  2002; 33:177.

Moore and Harvey, 1974. Moore TM, Harvey Jr JP: Roentgenographic measurement of tibial-plateau depression due to fracture. J Bone Joint Surg  1974; 56A:155.

Moore et al., 1976. Moore TM, Meyers MH, Harvey JP: Collateral ligamentous laxity of the knee: a long-term comparison between plateau fractures and normal. J Bone Joint Surg  1976; 59A:594.

Moore et al., 1987. Moore TM, Patzakis MJ, Harvey JP: Tibial plateau fractures: definition, demographics, treatment rationale, and long-term results of closed traction management or operative reduction. J Orthop Trauma  1987; 1:97.

Morandi and Pearse, 1996. Morandi M, Pearse MF: Management of complex tibial plateau fractures with the Ilizarov external fixator. Tech Orthop  1996; 11:125.

Mueller et al., 2005. Mueller CA, Eingartner C, Schreitmueller E, et al: Primary stability of various forms of osteosynthesis in the treatment of fractures of the proximal tibia. J Bone Joint Surg  2005; 87B:426.

Mueller et al., 2003. Mueller KL, Karunakar MA, Frankenburg EP, et al: Bicondylar tibial plateau fractures: a biomechanical study. Clin Orthop Relat Res  2003; 412:189.

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Perry et al., 1984. Perry CR, Evans LG, Rice S, et al: A new surgical approach to fractures of the lateral tibial plateau. J Bone Joint Surg  1984; 66A:1236.

Rafii et al., 1987. Rafii M, Lamont JG, Firooznia H: Tibial plateau fractures: CT evaluation and classification. Crit Rev Diagn Imaging  1987; 27:91.

Rasmussen, 1972. Rasmussen PS: Tibial condylar fractures as a cause of degenerative arthritis. Acta Orthop Scand  1972; 43:566.

Rasmussen, 1973. Rasmussen PS: Tibial condylar fractures: impairment of knee joint stability as an indication for surgical treatment. J Bone Joint Surg  1973; 55A:1331.

Reibel and Wade, 1962. Reibel DB, Wade PA: Fractures of the tibial plateau. J Trauma  1962; 2:337.

Reiner, 1982. Reiner MJ: The arthroscope in tibial plateau fractures: its use in evaluation of soft tissue and bony injury. J Am Osteopath Assoc  1982; 81:704.

Ricci et al., 2004. Ricci WM, Rudzki JR, Borrelli J: Treatment of complex proximal tibia fractures with the less invasive skeletal stabilization system. J Orthop Trauma  2004; 18:521.

Rich and Dabezies, 1987. Rich C, Dabezies EJ: Tibial plateau fractures. Orthopedics  1987; 10:1455.

Ries and Meinhard, 1990. Ries MD, Meinhard BP: Medial external fixation with lateral plate internal fixation in metaphyseal tibia fractures: a report of eight cases associated with severe soft tissue injury. Clin Orthop Relat Res  1990; 256:215.

Roberts, 1968. Roberts JM: Fractures of the condyles of the tibia: an anatomical and clinical end-result study of one hundred cases. J Bone Joint Surg  1968; 50A:1505.

Savoie et al., 1987. Savoie FH, Vander Griend RA, Ward EF, et al: Tibial plateau fractures: a review of operative treatment using AO technique. Orthopedics  1987; 10:745.

Schatzker et al., 2002. Schatzker J, McBroom R, Bruce D: The tibial plateau fracture: the Toronto experience 1968–1975. Clin Orthop Relat Res  2002; 138:94.

Schulak and Gunn, 1975. Schulak DJ, Gunn DR: Fractures of the tibial plateaus: a review of the literature. Clin Orthop Relat Res  1975; 109:166.

Shybut and Spiegel, 1979. Shybut GT, Spiegel PG: Tibial plateau fractures. Clin Orthop Relat Res  1979; 138:12.(editorial)

Sirkin et al., 2000. Sirkin MS, Bono CM, Reilly MC, et al: Percutaneous methods of tibial plateau fixation. Clin Orthop Relat Res  2000; 375:60.

Sommer et al., 2004. Sommer C, Müller M, Hanson BD: Locking compression plate loosening and plate breakage: a report of four cases. J Orthop Trauma  2004; 18:572.

Stamer et al., 1994. Stamer DT, Schenk R, Staggies B, et al: Bicondylar tibial plateau fractures treated with a hybrid ring external fixator: a preliminary study. J Orthop Trauma  1994; 8:455.

Tscherne and Lobenhoffer, 1993. Tscherne H, Lobenhoffer P: Tibial plateau fractures: management and expected results. Clin Orthop  1993; 292:87.

Volpin et al., 1990. Volpin G, Dowd GSE, Stein H, et al: Degenerative arthritis after intra-articular fractures of the knee: long-term results. J Bone Joint Surg  1990; 72B:634.

Waddell et al., 1981. Waddell JP, Johnston DWC, Neidre A: Fractures of the tibial plateau: a review of ninety-five patients and comparison of treatment methods. J Trauma  1981; 21:376.

Waldrop et al., 1988. Waldrop JI, Macey TI, Trettin JC, et al: Fractures of the posterolateral tibial plateau. Am J Sports Med  1988; 16:492.

Watson, 1994. Watson JT: High energy fractures of the tibial plateau. Orthop Clin North Am  1994; 25:723.

Watson et al., 2002. Watson JT, Ripple S, Hoshaw SJ, et al: Hybrid external fixation for tibial plateau fractures: clinical and biomechanical correlation. Orthop Clin North Am  2002; 33:199.

Weigel and Marsh, 2002. Weigel DP, Marsh JL: High-energy fractures of the tibial plateau. J Bone Joint Surg  2002; 84A:1541.

Weiner et al., 1995. Weiner LS, Kelley M, Yang E, et al: The use of combination internal fixation and hybrid external fixation in severe proximal tibia fractures. J Orthop Trauma  1995; 9:244.

Wilppula and Bakalim, 1972. Wilppula E, Bakalim G: Ligamentous tear concomitant with tibial condylar fracture. Acta Orthop Scand  1972; 43:292.

Wilson and Jacobs, 1952. Wilson WJ, Jacobs JE: Patellar graft for severely depressed comminuted fractures of the lateral tibial condyle. J Bone Joint Surg  1952; 34A:436.

Young and Barrak, 1994. Young MJ, Barrak RL: Complications in internal fixation of tibial plateau fractures. Orthop Rev  1994; 149:


Patella

Ahstrom, 1965. Ahstrom Jr JP: Osteochondral fracture in the knee joint associated with hypermobility and dislocation of the patella: report of eighteen cases. J Bone Joint Surg  1965; 47A:1491.

Andrews and Hughston, 1977. Andrews JR, Hughston JC: Treatment of patellar fractures by partial patellectomy. South Med J  1977; 70:809.

Benjamin et al., 1987. Benjamin J, Bried J, Dohm M, et al: Biomechanical evaluation of various forms of fixation of transverse patellar fractures. J Orthop Trauma  1987; 1:219.

Berg, 1997. Berg EE: Open reduction internal fixation of displaced transverse patella fractures with figure-eight wiring through parallel cannulated compression screws. J Orthop Trauma  1997; 11:573.

Bickel and Johnson, 1971. Bickel WH, Johnson KA: Z-plasty patellectomy. Surg Gynecol Obstet  1971; 132:985.

Böstman et al., 1981. Böstman O, Kiviluoto O, Nirhamo J: Comminuted displaced fractures of the patella. Injury  1981; 13:196.

Boström, 1972. Boström A: Fracture of the patella: a study of 422 patellar fractures. Acta Orthop Scand Suppl  1972; 143:1.

Brooke, 1936-1937. Brooke R: The treatment of fractured patella by excision: a study of morphology and function. Br J Surg  1936-1937; 24:733.

Burton and Thomas, 1972. Burton VW, Thomas HM: Results of excision of the patella. Surg Gynecol Obstet  1972; 135:753.

Burvant et al., 1994. Burvant JG, Thomas KA, Alexander R, et al: Evaluation of methods of internal fixation of transverse patella fractures: a biomechanical study. J Orthop Trauma  1994; 8:147.

Carpenter et al., 1993. Carpenter JE, Kasman R, Matthews LS: Fractures of the patella. J Bone Joint Surg  1993; 75A:1550.

Catalano et al., 1995. Catalano JB, Iannacone WM, Marczyk S, et al: Open fractures of the patella: long-term functional outcome. J Trauma  1995; 39:439.

Chang et al., 2005. Chang MA, Rand JA, Trousdale RT: Patellectomy after total knee arthroplasty. Clin Orthop  2005; 440:175.

Chen et al., 1998. Chen A, Hou C, Bao J, et al: Comparison of biodegradable and metallic tension-band fixation for patella fractures: 38 patients followed for 2 years. Acta Orthop Scand  1998; 69:39.

Codavilla, 1899. Codavilla A: Sur tendinei nella practica ortopedica. Orch Ortop  1899; 16:225.

Convery et al., 1972. Convery FR, Akeson WH, Keown GH: The repair of large osteochondral defects: an experimental study in horses. Clin Orthop Relat Res  1972; 82:253.

Crenshaw and Wilson, 1954. Crenshaw AH, Wilson FD: The surgical treatment of fractures of the patella. South Med J  1954; 47:716.

Curtis, 1990. Curtis MJ: Internal fixation for fractures of the patella: a comparison of two methods. J Bone Joint Surg  1990; 72B:280.

Devas, 1960. Devas MB: Stress fractures of the patella. J Bone Joint Surg  1960; 42B:71.

Duthie and Hutchinson, 1958. Duthie HL, Hutchinson JR: The results of partial and total excision of the patella. J Bone Joint Surg  1958; 40B:75.

Edwards et al., 1989. Edwards B, Johnell O, Redlund-Johnell I: Patellar fractures: a 30-year follow-up. Acta Orthop Scand  1989; 60:712.

Einola et al., 1976. Einola S, Aho AJ, Kallio P: Patellectomy after fracture: long-term follow-up results with special reference to functional disability. Acta Orthop Scand  1976; 47:441.

Foppen et al., 1994. Foppen GM, Kramer WL, Bultman H: Treatment of medial tangential osteochondral fractures of the patella, with resorbable materials: case report. Eur J Surg  1994; 160:649.

Frandsen and Kristensen, 1979. Frandsen PA, Kristensen H: Osteochondral fracture associated with dislocation of the patella: another mechanism of injury. J Trauma  1979; 19:195.

Freiberger and Kotzen, 1967. Freiberger RH, Kotzen LM: Fracture of the medial margin of the patella, a finding diagnostic of lateral dislocation. Radiology  1967; 88:902.

Gosal et al., 2001. Gosal HS, Singh P, Field RE: Clinical experience of patellar fracture fixation using metal wire or non-absorbable polyester—a study of 37 cases. Injury  2001; 32:129.

Griswold, 1954. Griswold AS: Fractures of the patella. Clin Orthop Relat Res  1954; 4:44.

Günal and Karatosun, 2001. Günal I, Karatosun V: Patellectomy: an overview with reconstructive procedures. Clin Orthop Relat Res  2001; 389:74.

Günal et al., 1997. Günal I, Taymaz A, Kose N, et al: Patellectomy with vastus medialis obliquus advancement for comminuted patellar fractures: a prospective randomized trial. J Bone Joint Surg  1997; 79B:13.

Haxton, 1945. Haxton HA: The function of the patella and the effects of its excision. Surg Gynecol Obstet  1945; 80:389.

Heckman and Alkire, 1984. Heckman JD, Alkire CC: Distal patellar pole fractures: a proposed common mechanism of injury. Am J Sports Med  1984; 12:424.

Ho and Fang, 1995. Ho TK, Fang D: Posterior cruciate avulsion fracture associated with a large inverted medial tibial osteochondral fragment. J Trauma  1995; 38:653.

Hoffer and Schechter, 1966. Hoffer MM, Schechter DE: Results of seventy-five patellectomies in seventy patients. Am J Surg  1966; 111:645.

Houghton and Ackroyd, 1979. Houghton GR, Ackroyd CE: Sleeve fractures of the patella in children: a report of three cases. J Bone Joint Surg  1979; 61B:165.

Hung et al., 1985. Hung LK, Chan KM, Chow YN, et al: Fractured patella: operative treatment using the tension band principle. Injury  1985; 16:343.

Kaufer, 1971. Kaufer H: Mechanical function of the patella. J Bone Joint Surg  1971; 53A:1551.

Kennedy et al., 1966. Kennedy JC, Grainger RW, McGraw RW: Osteochondral fractures of the femoral condyles. J Bone Joint Surg  1966; 48B:436.

Leung et al., 1983. Leung PC, Mak KH, Lee SY: Percutaneous tension band wiring: a new method of internal fixation for mildly displaced patella fracture. J Trauma  1983; 23:62.

Levitt, 1973. Levitt RL: A long-term evaluation of patellar prostheses. Clin Orthop Relat Res  1973; 97:153.

Liang and Wu, 1987. Liang QY, Wu JW: Fracture of the patella treated by open reduction and external compressive skeletal fixation. J Bone Joint Surg  1987; 69A:83.

Ma et al., 1984. Ma YZ, Zhang YF, Qu KF, et al: Treatment of fractures of the patella with percutaneous suture. Clin Orthop Relat Res  1984; 191:235.

Makino et al., 2002. Makino A, Aponte-Tinao L, Muscolo DL, et al: Arthroscopic-assisted surgical technique for treating patella fractures. Arthroscopy  2002; 18:671.

Marder et al., 1993. Marder RA, Swanson TV, Sharkey NA, et al: Effects of partial patellectomy and reattachment of the patellar tendon on patellofemoral contact areas and pressures. J Bone Joint Surg  1993; 75A:35.

Marya et al., 1987. Marya SKS, Bhan S, Dave PK: Comparative study of knee function after patellectomy and osteosynthesis with a tension band wire following patellar fractures. Int Surg  1987; 72:211.

Matejcic et al., 2006. Matejcic A, Smiljanic B, Bekavac-Beslin M, et al: The basket plate in the osteosynthesis of comminuted fractures of distal pole of the patella. Injury  2006; 37:525.

Matthewson and Dandy, 1978. Matthewson MH, Dandy DJ: Osteochondral fractures of the lateral femoral condyle: a result of indirect violence to the knee. J Bone Joint Surg  1978; 60B:199.

Mayer and Seidlein, 1988. Mayer G, Seidlein H: Chondral and osteochondral fractures of the knee joint—treatment and results. Arch Orthop Trauma Surg  1988; 107:154.

McGreal et al., 1999. McGreal G, Reidy D, Joy A, et al: The biomechanical evaluation of polyester as a tension band for the internal fixation of patellar fractures. J Med Eng Technol  1999; 23:53.

Milgram, 1943. Milgram JE: Tangential osteochondral fracture of the patella. J Bone Joint Surg  1943; 25:271.

Mishra, 1972. Mishra US: Late results of patellectomy in fractured patella. Acta Orthop Scand  1972; 43:256.

O'Donoghue, 1972. O'Donoghue DH: Facetectomy. South Med J  1972; 65:645.

Patel et al., 2000. Patel VR, Parks BG, Wang Y, et al: Fixation of patella fractures with braided polyester suture: a biomechanical study. Injury  2000; 31:1.

Peeples and Margo, 1978. Peeples RE, Margo MK: Function after patellectomy. Clin Orthop Relat Res  1978; 132:180.

Perry et al., 1988. Perry CR, McCarthy JA, Kain CC, et al: Patellar fixation protected with a load-sharing cable: a mechanical and clinical study. J Orthop Trauma  1988; 2:234.

Peterson and Stener, 1976. Peterson L, Stener B: Distal disinsertion of the patellar ligament combined with avulsion fractures at the medial and lateral margins of the patella: a case of report and an experimental study. Acta Orthop Scand  1976; 47:680.

Plaga et al., 1992. Plaga BR, Royster RM, Donigian AM, et al: Fixation of osteochondral fractures in rabbit knees: a comparison of Kirschner wires, fibrin sealant, and polydioxanone pins. J Bone Joint Surg  1992; 74B:292.

Pritsch et al., 1995. Pritsch M, Velkes S, Levy O, et al: Suture fixation of osteochondral fractures of the patella. J Bone Joint Surg  1995; 77B:154.

Rae and Khasawneh, 1988. Rae PS, Khasawneh ZM: Herbert screw fixation of osteochondral fractures of the patella. Injury  1988; 19:116.

Rorabeck and Bobechko, 1976. Rorabeck CH, Bobechko WP: Acute dislocation of the patella with osteochondral fracture: review of eighteen cases. J Bone Joint Surg  1976; 58B:237.

Saltzman et al., 1990. Saltzman CL, Goulet JA, McClellan T, et al: Results of treatment of displaced patellar fractures by partial patellectomy. J Bone Joint Surg  1990; 72A:1279.

Scilaris et al., 1998. Scilaris TA, Grantham JL, Prayson MJ, et al: Biomechanical comparison of fixation methods in transverse patella fractures. J Orthop Trauma  1998; 12:356.

Shorbe and Dobson, 1958. Shorbe HB, Dobson CH: Patellectomy. Repair of the extensor mechanism. J Bone Joint Surg  1958; 40A:1281.

Tandogan et al., 2002. Tandogan RN, Demirors H, Tuncay CI, et al: Arthroscopic-assisted percutaneous screw fixation of select patellar fractures. Arthroscopy  2002; 18:156.

Thompson and Schweigel, 1968. Thompson WJ, Schweigel JF: Patellectomy: a 21-year follow-up. Can J Surg  1968; 11:173.

Torchia and Lewellen, 1996. Torchia ME, Lewellen DG: Open fractures of the patella. J Orthop Trauma  1996; 10:403.

Turgut et al., 2001. Turgut A, Gunal I, Acar S, et al: Arthroscopic-assisted percutaneous stabilization of patellar fractures. Clin Orthop Relat Res  2001; 389:57.

Weber et al., 1980. Weber MJ, Janecki CJ, McLeod P, et al: Efficacy of various forms of fixation of transverse fractures of the patella. J Bone Joint Surg  1980; 62A:215.

West, 1962. West FE: End results of patellectomy. J Bone Joint Surg  1962; 44A:1089.

Yang and Byun, 2003. Yang KH, Byun YS: Separate vertical wiring for the fixation of comminuted fractures of the inferior pole of the patella. J Bone Joint Surg  2003; 85B:1155.

Zhao et al., 1999. Zhao J, Wu X, Peng X: Biomechanical experiment and clinical report of modified patellectomy for polar fracture of the patella. Clin J Traumatol  1999; 2:122.


Femur

Ali and Saleh, 2000. Ali F, Saleh M: Treatment of isolated complex distal femoral fractures by external fixation. Injury  2000; 31:139.

Anderson, 1967. Anderson RL: Conservative treatment of fractures of the femur. J Bone Joint Surg  1967; 49A:1371.

Arazi et al., 2001. Arazi M, Memik R, Ogun TC, Yel M: Ilizarov external fixation for severely comminuted supracondylar fractures of the distal femur. J Bone Joint Surg  2001; 83B:663.

Bain et al., 1997. Bain GI, Zacest AC, Paterson DC, et al: Abduction strength following intramedullary nailing of the femur. J Orthop Trauma  1997; 11:93.

Baixauli et al., 1998. Baixauli Sr F, Baixauli EJ, Sanchez-Alepuz E, et al: Interlocked intramedullary nailing for treatment of open femoral shaft fractures. Clin Orthop Relat Res  1998; 350:67.

Barazi et al., 2001. Barazi M, Memik R, Ogun TC, et al: Ilizarov external fixation for severely comminuted supracondylar and intercondylar fractures of the distal femur. J Bone Joint Surg  2001; 83B:663.

Barquet et al., 1985. Barquet A, Fernandez A, Leon H: Simultaneous ipsilateral trochanteric and femoral shaft fracture. Acta Orthop Scand  1985; 56:36.

Barquet and Mussio, 1983. Barquet A, Mussio A: Fracture dislocation of the femoral head with associated ipsilateral trochanteric and shaft fracture of the femur. Arch Orthop Trauma Surg  1983; 102:61.

Bassett and Goldner, 1962. Bassett III FH, Goldner JL: Fractures involving the distal femoral epiphyseal growth line. South Med J  1962; 55:545.

Behrman et al., 1990. Behrman SW, Fabian TC, Kudsk KA, et al: Improved outcome with femur fractures: early vs. delayed fixation. J Trauma  1990; 30:792.

Bellabarba et al., 2002. Bellabarba C, Ricci WM, Bolhofner BR: Indirect reduction and plating of distal femoral nonunions. J Orthop Trauma  2002; 16:287.

Benirschke et al., 1993. Benirschke SK, Melder I, Henley MB, et al: Closed interlocking nailing of femoral shaft fractures: assessment of technical complications and functional outcomes by comparison of a prospective database with retrospective review. J Orthop Trauma  1993; 7:118.

Benum, 1977. Benum P: The use of bone cement as an adjunct to internal fixation of supracondylar fractures of osteoporotic femurs. Acta Orthop Scand  1977; 48:52.

Bergman et al., 1987. Bergman GD, Winquist RA, Mayo KA, et al: Subtrochanteric fracture of the femur. J Bone Joint Surg  1987; 69A:1032.

Bernstein, 1974. Bernstein SM: Fractures of the femoral shaft and associated ipsilateral fractures of the hip. Orthop Clin North Am  1974; 5:799.

Blake and McBryde, 1975. Blake R, McBryde Jr A: The floating knee: ipsilateral fractures of the femur and tibia. South Med J  1975; 68:13.

Böhler, 1961. Böhler J: Behandlung der kniescheibenbruche: osteosythese, teilexstirpation, extirpation. Dtsch Med Wochenschr  1961; 86:1209.

Bolhofner et al., 1996. Bolhofner BR, Carmen B, Clifford P: The results of open reduction and internal fixation of distal femur fractures using a biologic (indirect) reduction technique. J Orthop Trauma  1996; 10:372.

Bone et al., 1995. Bone LB, Babikian G, Stegemann PM: Femoral canal reaming in the polytrauma patient with chest injury: a clinical perspective. Clin Orthop Relat Res  1995; 318:91.

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