Full-size Left-side Hidden


Gustilo et al., 1987. Gustilo RB, Gruninger RP, Davis T: Classification of type III (severe) open fractures relative to treatment and results. Orthopedics  1987; 10:1781.

Gustilo et al., 1984. Gustilo RB, Mendoza RM, Williams DN: Problems in the management of type III (severe) open fractures: a new classification of type III open fractures. J Trauma  1984; 24:742.

Hardin, 1990. Hardin GT: Timing of fracture fixation: a review. Orthop Rev  1990; 19:861.

Swiontkowski et al., 2002. Swiontkowski MF, MacKenzie EJ, Bosse MJ, et al: Factors influencing the decision to amputate or reconstruct after high-energy lower extremity trauma. J Trauma  2002; 52:641.

Ankle (Pilon Fractures)

Ahl et al., 1989. Ahl T, Dalen N, Selvik G: Ankle fractures: a clinical and roentgenographic stereophotogrammetric study. Clin Orthop Relat Res  1989; 245:246.

Amendola, 1992. Amendola A: Controversies in diagnosis and management of syndesmosis injuries of the ankle. Foot Ankle  1992; 13:44.

Anderson and Hansen, 1996. Anderson JG, Hansen ST: Fracture-dislocation of the ankle with posterior tibial tendon entrapment within the tibiofibular interosseous space: a case report of a late diagnosis. Foot Ankle Int  1996; 17:114.

Anglen, 1999. Anglen JO: Early outcome of hybrid external fixation for fracture of the distal tibia. J Orthop Trauma  1999; 13:92.

Ayeni, 1988. Ayeni JP: Pilon fractures of the tibia: a study based on 19 cases. Injury  1988; 19:109.

Barbieri et al., 1996. Barbieri R, Schenk R, Koval K, et al: Hybrid external fixation in the treatment of tibial plafond fractures. Clin Orthop Relat Res  1996; 332:16.

Bauer et al., 1985. Bauer M, Jonsson K, Nilsson B: Thirty-year follow-up of ankle fractures. Acta Orthop Scand  1985; 56:103.

Beauchamp et al., 1983. Beauchamp CG, Clay NR, Thexton PW: Displaced ankle fractures in patients over 50 years of age. J Bone Joint Surg  1983; 65B:329.

Bhattacharyya, 2006. Bhattacharyya T: Case controversy. Position: open reduction and internal fixation. J Orthop Trauma  2006; 20:512.

Bhattacharyya et al., 2006. Bhattacharyya T, Crichlow R, Gobezie R, et al: Complications associated with the posterolateral approach for pilon fractures. J Orthop Trauma  2006; 20:104.

Blauth et al., 2001. Blauth M, Bastian L, Krettek C, et al: Surgical options for the treatment of severe tibial pilon fractures: a study of three techniques. J Orthop Trauma  2001; 15:153.

Blotter et al., 1999. Blotter RH, Connolly E, Wasan A, et al: Acute complications in the operative treatment of isolated ankle fractures in patients with diabetes mellitus. Foot Ankle Int  1999; 20:687.

Boden and Osbahr, 2000. Boden BP, Osbahr DC: High-risk stress fractures: evaluation and treatment. J Am Acad Orthop Surg  2000; 8:344.

Boden et al., 1989. Boden SD, Labropoulos PA, McCowin P, et al: Mechanical considerations for the syndesmosis screw. J Bone Joint Surg  1989; 71A:1548.

Bonar and Marsh, 1993. Bonar SK, Marsh JL: Unilateral external fixation for severe pilon fractures. Foot Ankle  1993; 14:57.

Bone, 1987. Bone LB: Fractures of the tibial plafond: the pilon fracture. Orthop Clin North Am  1987; 18:95.

Borens et al., 2006. Borens O, Kloen P, Richmond J, et al: Minimally invasive treatment of pilon fractures with a low profile plate: preliminary results in 17 cases. Arch Orthop Trauma Surg  2006.[epub ahead of print].

Borrelli and Ellis, 2002. Borrelli Jr J, Ellis E: Pilon fractures: assessment and treatment. Orthop Clin North Am  2002; 33:231.

Borrelli et al., 2002. Borrelli J, Prickett W, Song E, et al: Extraosseous blood supply of the tibia and effects of different plating techniques: a human cadaver study. J Orthop Trauma  2002; 16:691.

Böstman, 1988. Böstman OM: Displaced malleolar fractures associated with spiral fractures of the tibial shaft. Clin Orthop  1988; 228:202.

Böstman, 1992. Böstman OM: Intense granulomatous inflammatory lesions associated with absorbable internal fixation devices made of polyglycolide in ankle fractures. Clin Orthop  1992; 278:193.

Böstman et al., 1989. Böstman OM, Hirvensalo E, Vainionpaa S, et al: Ankle fractures treated using biodegradable internal fixation. Clin Orthop Relat Res  1989; 238:195.

Böstman and Pihlajamake, 2000. Böstman OM, Pihlajamake HK: Adverse tissue reactions to bioabsorbable fixation devices. Clin Orthop Relat Res  2000; 371:216.

Bosworth, 1947. Bosworth DM: Fracture-dislocation of the ankle with fixed displacement of the fibula behind the tibia. J Bone Joint Surg  1947; 29:130.

Bourne et al., 1983. Bourne RB, Rorabeck CH, Macnab J: Intraarticular fractures of the distal tibia: the pilon fracture. J Trauma  1983; 23:591.

Bray et al., 1989. Bray TJ, Endicott M, Capra SE: Treatment of open ankle fractures: immediate internal fixation versus closed immobilization and delayed fixation. Clin Orthop Relat Res  1989; 240:47.

Breederveld et al., 1988. Breederveld RS, van Straaten J, Patka P, et al: Immediate or delayed operative treatment of fractures of the ankle. Injury  1988; 19:436.

Brodie and Denham, 1974. Brodie IAOD, Denham RA: The treatment of unstable ankle fractures. J Bone Joint Surg  1974; 56B:256.

Brown et al., 2001. Brown OL, Dirschl DR, Obremskey WT: Incidence of hardware-related pain and its effect on functional outcomes after open reduction and internal fixation of ankle fractures. J Orthop Trauma  2001; 15:271.

Brown et al., 1994. Brown TD, Hurlbut PT, Hale JE, et al: Effects of imposed hindfoot constraint on contact mechanics of displaced lateral malleolar fractures. Trans Orthop Res Soc  1994; 40:257.

Bucholz et al., 1994. Bucholz RW, Henry S, Henley MB: Fixation with bioabsorbable screws for the treatment of fractures of the ankle. J Bone Joint Surg  1994; 76A:325.

Burns et al., 1993. Burns II WC, Prakash K, Adelaar R, et al: Tibiotalar joint dynamics: indications for the syndesmotic screw—a cadaver study. Foot Ankle  1993; 14:153.

Burwell and Charnley, 1965. Burwell HN, Charnley AD: The treatment of displaced fractures at the ankle by rigid internal fixation and early joint movement. J Bone Joint Surg  1965; 47B:634.

Candal-Couto et al., 2004. Candal-Couto JJ, Burrow D, Bromage S, et al: Instability of the tibio-fibular syndesmosis: have we been pulling in the wrong direction?. Injury Int J Care  2004; 35:814.

Carothers and Crenshaw, 1955. Carothers CO, Crenshaw AH: Clinical significance of a classification of epiphyseal injuries at the ankle. Am J Surg  1955; 89:879.

Casey et al., 2002. Casey D, McConnell T, Parekh S, et al: Percutaneous pin placement in the medial calcaneus: is anywhere safe?. J Orthop Trauma  2002; 16:26.

Childress, 1965. Childress HM: Vertical transarticular pin fixation for unstable ankle fractures. J Bone Joint Surg  1965; 47A:1323.

Cole and Benirschke, 1999. Cole PA, Benirschke SK: Minimally invasive surgery for the pilon fracture: the percutaneous-submuscular plating technique. Tech Orthop  1999; 14:201.

Collinge and Sanders, 2000. Collinge CA, Sanders RW: Percutaneous plating in the lower extremity. J Am Acad Orthop Surg  2000; 8:211.

Coonrad and Bugg, 1954. Coonrad RW, Bugg Jr EL: Trapping of the posterior tibial tendon and interposition of soft tissue in severe fractures about the ankle joint. J Bone Joint Surg  1954; 36A:744.

Court-Brown et al., 1999. Court-Brown CM, Walker C, Garg A, et al: Half-ring external fixation in the management of tibial plafond fractures. J Orthop Trauma  1999; 13:200.

Crenshaw, 1965. Crenshaw AH: Injuries of the distal tibial epiphysis. Clin Orthop Relat Res  1965; 41:98.

Curry et al., 1999. Curry EE, O'Brien TS, Johnson JE: Fibular nonunion and equinovarus deformity secondary to posterior tibial tendon incarceration in the syndesmosis: a case report after a bimalleolar fracture-dislocation. Foot Ankle Int  1999; 20:527.

Dabezies et al., 1978. Dabezies E, D'Ambrosia RD, Shoji H: Classification and treatment of ankle fractures. Orthopedics  1978; 1:365.

Dahners, 1990. Dahners LE: The pathogenesis and treatment of bimalleolar ankle fractures. Instr Course Lect  1990; 39:85.

DeCoster et al., 1999. DeCoster TA, Willis MC, Marsh JL, et al: Rank order analysis of tibial plafond fractures: does injury or reduction predict outcome?. Foot Ankle Int  1999; 20:44.

Dickson et al., 2001. Dickson KF, Montgomery S, Field J: High energy plafond fractures treated by a spanning external fixator initially and followed by a second stage open reduction internal fixation of the articular surface—preliminary report. Injury  2001; 32(suppl D):92.

Donatto, 2001. Donatto KC: Ankle fractures and syndesmosis injuries. Orthop Clin North Am  2001; 32:79.

Ebraheim et al., 1999. Ebraheim NA, Mekhail AO, Haman SP: External rotation-lateral view of the ankle in the assessment of the posterior malleolus. Foot Ankle Int  1999; 20:379.

Egol et al., 2006. Egol KA, Weisz R, Hiebert R, et al: Does fibular plating improve alignment after intramedullary nailing of distal metaphyseal tibia fractures?. J Orthop Trauma  2006; 20:94.

Egol et al., 2000. Egol KA, Wolinsky P, Koval KJ: Open reduction and internal fixation of tibial pilon fractures. Foot Ankle Clin  2000; 5:873.

El-Shazly et al., 2001. El-Shazly M, Dalbyu Ball J, Burton M, et al: The use of transarticular and extraarticular external fixation for management of distal tibial intraarticular fractures. Injury  2001; 32(suppl 4):99.

Etter and Ganz, 1991. Etter C, Ganz R: Long-term results of tibial plafond fractures treated with open reduction and internal fixation. Arch Orthop Trauma Surg  1991; 11:227.

Finsen et al., 1989. Finsen V, Saetermo R, Kibsgaard L, et al: Early postoperative weight-bearing and muscle activity in patients who have a fracture of the ankle. J Bone Joint Surg  1989; 71A:23.

Franklin et al., 1984. Franklin JL, Johnson KD, Hansen Jr ST: Immediate internal fixation of open ankle fractures: report of thirty-eight cases treated with a standard protocol. J Bone Joint Surg  1984; 66A:1349.

French and Tornetta, 2000. French B, Tornetta III P: Hybrid external fixation of tibial pilon fractures. Foot Ankle Clin  2000; 5:853.

Frokjaer and Möller, 1992. Frokjaer J, Möller BN: Biodegradable fixation of ankle fractures: complications in a prospective study of 25 cases. Acta Orthop Scand  1992; 63:434.

Gaston and McLaughlin, 1961. Gaston S, McLaughlin HL: Complex fractures of the lateral malleolus. J Trauma  1961; 1:69.

Gatellier, 1931. Gatellier J: The juxtaretroperoneal route in the operative treatment of fracture of the malleolus with posterior marginal fragment. Surg Gynecol Obstet  1931; 52:67.

Gatellier and Chastang, 1924. Gatellier J, Chastang B: Access to fractured malleolus with piece chipped off at back. J Chir  1924; 24:513.

Giachino and Hammond, 1987. Giachino AA, Hammond DI: The relationship between oblique fractures of the medial malleolus and concomitant fractures of the anterolateral aspect of the tibial plafond. J Bone Joint Surg  1987; 69A:381.

Grantham, 1990. Grantham SA: Trimalleolar ankle fractures and open ankle fractures. Instr Course Lect  1990; 39:105.

Harper and Hardin, 1988. Harper MC, Hardin G: Posterior malleolar fractures of the ankle associated with external rotation-abduction injuries: results with and without internal fixation. J Bone Joint Surg  1988; 70A:1348.

Hayes and Nadkarni, 1996. Hayes AG, Nadkarni JB: Extensile posterior approach to the ankle. J Bone Joint Surg  1996; 78B:468.

Helfet et al., 1997. Helfet DL, Shonnard PY, Levine D, et al: Minimally invasive plate osteosynthesis of distal fractures of the tibia. Injury  1997; 28:42.

Helfet et al., 1999. Helfet DL, Sorkin AT, Levine DS, et al: Minimally invasive plate osteosynthesis of distal tibial fractures. Tech Orthop  1999; 14:191.

Herscovici et al., 1999. Herscovici D, Sanders RW, Infante A: Böhler incision: an extensile anterolateral approach to the foot and ankle. J Orthop Trauma  1999; 13:586.

Hirvensalo, 1989. Hirvensalo E: Fracture fixation with biodegradable rods: forty-one cases of severe ankle fractures. Acta Orthop Scand  1989; 60:601.

Hovis and Bucholz, 1997. Hovis WD, Bucholz RW: Polyglycolide bioabsorbable screws in the treatment of ankle fractures. Foot Ankle Int  1997; 18:128.

Hovis et al., 2002. Hovis WD, Kaiser BW, Watson JT, et al: Treatment of syndesmotic disruptions of the ankle with bioabsorbable screw fixation. J Bone Joint Surg  2002; 84A:26.

Hughes et al., 1979. Hughes JL, Weber H, Willenegger H, et al: Evaluation of ankle fractures: nonoperative and operative treatment. Clin Orthop Relat Res  1979; 138:111.

Johnson and Hill, 1988. Johnson DP, Hill J: Fracture-dislocation of the ankle with rupture of the deltoid ligament. Injury  1988; 19:59.

Johnson and Davlin, 1993. Johnson EE, Davlin LB: Open ankle fractures: the indications for immediate open reduction and internal fixation. Clin Orthop  1993; 292:118.

Joy et al., 1974. Joy G, Patzakis MJ, Harvey Jr JP: Precise evaluation of the reduction of severe ankle fractures: technique and correlation with end results. J Bone Joint Surg  1974; 56A:979.

Kao et al., 2000. Kao KF, Huang PJ, Chen YW, et al: Postero-medio-anterior approach of the ankle for the pilon fracture. Injury  2000; 31:71.

Kaye, 1989. Kaye RA: Stabilization of ankle syndesmosis injuries with a syndesmosis screw. Foot Ankle  1989; 9:290.

Kellam and Waddell, 1979. Kellam JF, Waddell JP: Fractures of the distal tibial metaphysis with intraarticular extension—the distal tibial explosion fracture. J Trauma  1979; 19:593.

Ketenjian and Shelton, 1972. Ketenjian AY, Shelton ML: Primary internal fixation of open fractures: a retrospective study of the use of metallic internal fixation in fresh open fractures. J Trauma  1972; 12:756.

Kim and Oh, 1999. Kim SK, Oh JK: One or two lag screws for fixation of Danis-Weber type B fractures of the ankle. J Trauma  1999; 46:1039.

Konrath and Hopkins, 1999. Konrath GA, Hopkins II G: Posterolateral approach for tibial pilon fractures: a report of two cases. J Orthop Trauma  1999; 13:586.

Konvath et al., 1995. Konvath G, Karges D, Watson JT, et al: Early versus delayed treatment of severe ankle fracture: a comparison of results. J Orthop Trauma  1995; 9:377.

Koval et al., 1997. Koval KJ, Petraco DM, Kummer FJ, et al: A new technique for complex fibula fracture fixation in the elderly: a clinical and biomechanical evaluation. J Orthop Trauma  1997; 11:28.

Kristensen and Hansen, 1985. Kristensen KD, Hansen T: Closed treatment of ankle fractures: stage II supination-eversion fractures followed for 20 years. Acta Orthop Scand  1985; 56:107.

Laskin, 1974. Laskin RS: Steinmann pin fixation in the treatment of unstable fractures of the ankle. J Bone Joint Surg  1974; 56A:549.

Lauge-Hansen, 1950. Lauge-Hansen N: Fractures of the ankle, II: combined experimental-surgical and experimental-roentgenologic investigations. Arch Surg  1950; 60:957.

Lauge-Hansen, 1953. Lauge-Hansen N: Fractures of the ankle, V: pronation-dorsiflexion fracture. Arch Surg  1953; 67:813.

Leach, 1979. Leach RE: Ankle fractures: internal fixation, III: fractures of the tibial plafond. Instr Course Lect  1979; 28:88.

Lee and Horan, 1943. Lee HG, Horan TB: Internal fixation in injuries of the ankle. Surg Gynecol Obstet  1943; 76:593.

Loren and Ferkel, 2002. Loren GJ, Ferkel RD: Arthroscopic assessment of occult intraarticular injury in acute ankle fractures. Arthroscopy  2002; 18:412.

Lynn, 1972. Lynn MD: The triplane distal tibial epiphyseal fracture. Clin Orthop Relat Res  1972; 86:187.

Maale and Seligson, 1980. Maale G, Seligson D: Fractures through the weight-bearing surface of the distal tibia. Orthopedics  1980; 3:517.

Makwana et al., 2001. Makwana NK, Bhowal B, Harper WM, et al: Conservative versus operative treatment for displaced ankle fracture in patients over 55 years of age: a prospective, randomized study. J Bone Joint Surg  2001; 83B:525.

Marmor, 1970. Marmor L: An unusual fracture of the tibial epiphysis. Clin Orthop  1970; 73:132.

Marsh, 1999. Marsh JL: Current controversies in orthopaedic trauma: external fixation is the treatment of choice for fractures of the tibial plafond. J Orthop Trauma  1999; 13:583.

Marsh et al., 1995. Marsh JL, Bonar S, Nepola JV, et al: Use of an articulated external fixator for fractures of the tibial plafond. J Bone Joint Surg  1995; 77A:1498.

Marsh et al., 2006. Marsh JL, Muehling V, Dirschl D, et al: Tibial plafond fractures treated by articulated external fixation: a randomized trial of postoperative motion versus nonmotion. J Orthop Trauma  2006; 20:536.

Marsh et al., 2003. Marsh JL, Weigel DP, Dirschl DR: Tibial plafond fractures: how do these ankles function over time?. J Bone Joint Surg  2003; 85A:287.

Mast, 1987. Mast J: Reduction techniques in fractures of the distal tibial articular surface. Tech Orthop  1987; 2:29.

Mast et al., 1988. Mast JW, Spiegel PG, Pappas JN: Fractures of the tibial pilon. Clin Orthop Relat Res  1988; 230:68.

McCormack and Leith, 1998. McCormack RG, Leith JM: Ankle fractures in diabetics: complications of surgical management. J Bone Joint Surg  1998; 80B:689.

McDade, 1975. McDade WC: Diagnosis and treatment of ankle injuries. Instr Course Lect  1975; 24:251.

McLennan and Ungersma, 1989. McLennan JG, Ungersma J: Evaluation of the treatment of ankle fractures with the Inyo nail. J Orthop Trauma  1989; 2:272.

Meyers, 1965. Meyers MH: Fracture about the ankle joint with fixed displacement of the proximal fragment of the fibula behind the tibia. Clin Orthop Relat Res  1965; 42:67.

Michelson, 1995. Michelson JD: Current concepts review: fractures about the ankle. J Bone Joint Surg  1995; 77A:142.

Michelson et al., 1994. Michelson JD, Helgemo SL, Ahn UM: Dynamic biomechanics of the normal and fractured ankle. Trans Orthop Res Soc  1994; 40:253.

Molinari et al., 1990. Molinari M, Bertoldi L, De March L: Fracture dislocation of the ankle with the fibula trapped behind the tibia: a case report. Acta Orthop Scand  1990; 61:471.

Müller et al., 1979. Müller ME, Allgöwer M, Schneider R, et al: Manual of internal fixation: techniques recommended by the AO group,  2nd ed. New York, Springer-Verlag, 1979.

Myerson and Edwards, 1999. Myerson MS, Edwards WHB: Management of neuropathic fractures in the foot and ankle. J Am Acad Orthop Surg  1999; 7:8.

Namba et al., 1991. Namba RS, Kabo JM, Dorey FJ, et al: Continuous passive motion versus immobilization: the effect on posttraumatic joint stiffness. Clin Orthop Relat Res  1991; 267:218.

Needleman et al., 1989. Needleman RL, Skrade DA, Stiehl JB: Effect of the syndesmotic screw on ankle motion. Foot Ankle  1989; 10:17.

Ngcelwane, 1990. Ngcelwane MV: Management of open fractures of the ankle joint. Injury  1990; 21:93.

Nielsen et al., 1990. Nielsen JO, Dons-Jensen H, Sorensen HT: Lauge-Hansen classification of malleolar fractures: an assessment of the reproducibility in 118 cases. Acta Orthop Scand  1990; 61:385.

Okcu and Aktuglu, 2004. Okcu G, Aktuglu K: Intra-articular fractures of the tibial plafond: a comparison of the results using articulated and ring external fixators. J Bone Joint Surg  2004; 86B:868.

O'Leary and Ward, 1989. O'Leary C, Ward FJ: A unique closed abduction-external rotation ankle fracture. J Trauma  1989; 29:119.

Olerud and Johansson, 1970. Olerud S, Johansson H: The lateral malleolus. Ann Dig Foreign Orthop Lit  1970; 3rd qtr:29.

Orava et al., 1995. Orava S, Karpakka J, Taimela S, et al: Stress fracture of medial malleolus. J Bone Joint Surg  1995; 77A:362.

Ostrum, 1996. Ostrum RF: Posterior plating of displaced Weber B fibula fractures. J Orthop Trauma  1996; 10:199.

Ovadia and Beals, 1986. Ovadia DN, Beals RK: Fractures of the tibial plafond. J Bone Joint Surg  1986; 68A:543.

Pankovich, 1979. Pankovich AM: Fractures of the fibula at the distal tibiofibular syndesmosis. Clin Orthop Relat Res  1979; 143:138.

Pankovich and Shivaram, 1979. Pankovich AM, Shivaram MS: Anatomical basis of variability in injuries of the medial malleolus and the deltoid ligament, I: anatomical studies; II: II:. clinical studies. Acta Orthop Scand  1979; 50:217.

Park et al., 2002. Park JW, Kim SK, Hong JS, et al: Anterior tibiofibular ligament avulsion fracture in Weber type B lateral malleolar fracture. J Trauma  2002; 52:655.

Park et al., 2006. Park SS, Kubiak EN, Egol KA, et al: Stress radiographs after ankle fracture: the effect of ankle position and deltoid ligament status on medial clear space measurements. J Orthop Trauma  2006; 20:11.

Parrish, 1959. Parrish TF: Fracture dislocation of the ankle—an unusual cause of failure of reduction: a case report. J Bone Joint Surg  1959; 41A:749.

Patterson and Cole, 1999. Patterson MJ, Cole JD: Two-staged delayed open reduction and internal fixation of severe pilon fractures. J Orthop Trauma  1999; 13:85.

Peter et al., 1994. Peter RE, Harrington RM, Henley MB, et al: Biomechanical effects of internal fixation of the distal tibiofibular syndesmotic joint: comparison of two fixation techniques. J Orthop Trauma  1994; 8:215.

Petrisor et al., 2006. Petrisor BA, Poolman R, Koval K, et al: Management of displaced ankle fractures. J Orthop Trauma  2006; 20:515.

Pettrone et al., 1983. Pettrone FA, Gail M, Pee D, et al: Quantitative criteria for prediction of the results after displaced fracture of the ankle. J Bone Joint Surg  1983; 65A:66.

Phillips et al., 1985. Phillips WA, Schwartz HS, Keller CS, et al: A prospective, randomized study of the management of severe ankle fractures. J Bone Joint Surg  1985; 67A:67.

Phillips and Spiegel, 1979. Phillips WA, Spiegel PG: Evaluation of ankle fractures: nonoperative vs operative. Clin Orthop Relat Res  1979; 138:17.(editorial)

Pierce and Heinrich, 1979. Pierce Jr RO, Heinrich JH: Comminuted intraarticular fractures of the distal tibia. J Trauma  1979; 19:828.

Pollak et al., 2003. Pollak AN, McCarthy ML, Bess RS, et al: Outcomes after treatment of high-energy tibial plafond fractures. J Bone Joint Surg  2003; 85A:1893.

Pugh et al., 1999. Pugh KJ, Wolinsky PR, McAndrew MP, et al: Tibial pilon fractures: a comparison of treatment methods. J Trauma  1999; 47:937.

Ramsey and Hamilton, 1976. Ramsey PL, Hamilton W: Changes in tibiotalar area of contact caused by lateral talar shift. J Bone Joint Surg  1976; 58A:356.

Roberts, 1983. Roberts RS: Surgical treatment of displaced ankle fractures. Clin Orthop Relat Res  1983; 172:164.

Rokkanen et al., 2000. Rokkanen PU, Böstman O, Hirvensalo E, et al: Bioabsorbable fixation in orthopaedic surgery and traumatology. Biomaterials  2000; 21:2607.

Rüedi, 1973. Rüedi T: Fractures of the lower end of the tibia into the ankle joint: results 9 years after open reduction and internal fixation. Injury  1973; 5:130.

Rüedi and Allgöwer, 1969. Rüedi T, Allgöwer M: Fractures of the lower end of the tibia into the ankle joint. Injury  1969; 1:92.

Rüedi and Allgöwer, 1973. Rüedi T, Allgöwer M: Fractures of the lower end of the tibia into the ankle joint: results 9 years after open reduction and internal fixation. Injury  1973; 5:130.

Rüedi and Allgöwer, 1979. Rüedi TP, Allgöwer M: The operative treatment of intraarticular fractures of the lower end of the tibia. Clin Orthop Relat Res  1979; 138:105.

Salter, 1974. Salter RB: Injuries of the ankle in children. Orthop Clin North Am  1974; 5:147.

Salter et al., 1980. Salter RB, Simmonds DF, Malcolm BW, et al: The biological effect of continuous passive motion on the healing of full-thickness defects in articular cartilage: an experimental investigation in the rabbit. J Bone Joint Surg  1980; 62A:1232.

Sarkisian and Cody, 1976. Sarkisian JS, Cody SW: Closed treatment of ankle fractures: a new criterion for evaluation: a review of 250 cases. J Trauma  1976; 16:323.

Segal, 1979. Segal D: Ankle fractures: internal fixation, II: displaced ankle fractures treated surgically and postoperative management. Instr Course Lect  1979; 28:79.

Shelbourne et al., 1988. Shelbourne KD, Fisher DA, Rettig AC, et al: Stress fractures of the medial malleolus. Am J Sports Med  1988; 16:60.

Sirkin and Sanders, 2001. Sirkin M, Sanders R: The treatment of pilon fractures. Orthop Clin North Am  2001; 32:91.

Sirkin et al., 1999. Sirkin M, Sanders R, DiPasquale T, et al: A staged protocol for soft tissue management in the treatment of complex pilon fractures. J Orthop Trauma  1999; 13:78.

Stiehl, 1990. Stiehl JB: Ankle fractures with diastasis. Instr Course Lect  1990; 39:95.

Stiehl, 1990. Stiehl JB: Complex ankle fracture dislocations with syndesmotic diastasis. Orthop Rev  1990; 19:499.

Stiehl, 1990. Stiehl JB: Open fractures of the ankle joint. Instr Course Lect  1990; 39:113.

Svend-Hansen et al., 1978. Svend-Hansen H, Bremerskov V, Baekgaard N: Ankle fractures treated by fixation of the medial malleolus alone: late results in 29 patients. Acta Orthop Scand  1978; 49:211.

Teeny and Wiss, 1993. Teeny SM, Wiss DA: Open reduction and internal fixation of tibial plafond fractures. Clin Orthop Relat Res  1993; 292:108.

Thompson et al., 1999.  Thompson MC, Gesink D, Hamson K: Biomechanical evaluation of syndesmosis fixation with 3.5- and 4.5-millimeter stainless steel screws. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Orthopaedic Trauma Association, Charlotte, NC, Oct 23, 1999.

Tile, 1987. Tile ON: Fractures of the ankle.   In: Schatzker J, Tile ON, ed. The rationale of operative fracture care,  New York: Springer-Verlag; 1987.

Topliss et al., 2005. Topliss CJ, Jackson M, Atkins RM: Anatomy of pilon fractures of the distal tibia. J Bone Joint Surg  2005; 87B:692.

Torg and Ruggiero, 1975. Torg JS, Ruggiero RA: Comminuted epiphyseal fracture of the distal tibia: a case report and review of the literature. Clin Orthop Relat Res  1975; 110:215.

Tornetta and Gorup, 1996. Tornetta P, Gorup J: Axial computed tomography of pilon fractures. Clin Orthop Relat Res  1996; 232:273.

Tornetta et al., 1998.  Tornetta P, Nguyen S, Scott C: Lag screw fixation of the lateral malleolus. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Orthopaedic Trauma Association, Vancouver, British Columbia, Oct 8, 1998.

Tornetta et al., 1999.  Tornetta P, Reynolds F, Spoo J, et al: Overtightening of the syndesmosis: is it really possible? Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Orthopaedic Trauma Association, Charlotte, NC, Oct 23, 1999.

Vander Griend et al., 1996. Vander Griend R, Michelson JD, Bone LB: Fractures of the ankle and the distal part of the tibia. J Bone Joint Surg  1996; 78A:1772.

Vives et al., 2001. Vives MJ, Abidi NA, Ishikawa SN, et al: Soft tissue injuries with the use of safe corridors for transfision wire placement during external fixation of distal tibia fractures: an anatomical study. J Orthop Trauma  2001; 15:555.

Vives et al., 1984. Vives P, Hourlier H, DeLestang M, et al: Articular fractures of the lower end of the tibia: an attempt at classification. Rev Chir Orthop  1984; 70:129.

Warner and Farber, 1965. Warner WC, Farber LA: Trimalleolar fractures. South Med J  1965; 58:1292.

Watson, 1996. Watson JT: Tibial pilon fractures. Tech Orthop  1996; 11:150.

Watson et al., 2000.  Watson JT, Karges DE, Cramer KE, et al: Analysis of failure of hybrid external fixation techniques for the treatment of distal tibial pilon fractures. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Orthopaedic Trauma Association, San Antonio, Tex, Oct 14, 2000.

Watson et al., 2000. Watson JT, Moed BR, Karges DE, et al: Pilon fractures: treatment protocol based on severity of soft tissue injury. Clin Orthop  2000; 375:78.

Weber, 1972. Weber BG: Die verletzungen des oberen sprunggelenkes,  2nd ed. Bern, Verlag Hans Huber, 1972.

Whitelaw et al., 1989. Whitelaw GP, Sawka MW, Wetzler M, et al: Unrecognized injuries of the lateral ligaments associated with lateral malleolar fractures of the ankle. J Bone Joint Surg  1989; 71A:1396.

Williams et al., 1998. Williams TM, Marsh JL, Nepola JV, et al: External fixation of the tibial plafond fractures: is routine plating of the fibula necessary?. J Orthop Trauma  1998; 12:16.

Williams et al., 2004. Williams TM, Nepola JV, DeCoster TA, et al: Factors affecting outcome in tibial plafond fractures. Clin Orthop Relat Res  2004; 423:93.

Wilson, 1990. Wilson FC: The pathogenesis and treatment of ankle fractures: classification. Instr Course Lect  1990; 39:79.

Wilson, 1990. Wilson FC: The pathogenesis and treatment of ankle fractures: historical studies. Instr Course Lect  1990; 39:73.

Wilson and Skilbred, 1966. Wilson Jr FC, Skilbred LA: Long-term results in the treatment of displaced bimalleolar fractures. J Bone Joint Surg  1966; 48A:1065.

Wiss et al., 1988. Wiss DA, Gilbert P, Merritt PO, et al: Immediate internal fixation of open ankle fractures. J Orthop Trauma  1988; 2:265.

Wyrsch et al., 1996. Wyrsch B, McFerran MA, McAndrew M, et al: Operative treatment of fractures of the tibial plafond: a randomized, prospective study. J Bone Joint Surg  1996; 78A:1646.

Yablon, 1979. Yablon IG: Ankle fractures: internal fixation, I: reduction of displaced bimalleolar ankle fractures. Instr Course Lect  1979; 28:72.

Yablon et al., 1977. Yablon IG, Heller FG, Shouse L: The key role of the lateral malleolus in displaced fractures of the ankle. J Bone Joint Surg  1977; 59A:169.

Yang et al., 2002. Yang L, Nayagam S, Saleh M: Stiffness characteristics and inter-fragmentary displacements with different hybrid external fixators. Clin Biomech  2002; 18:166.

Yde and Kristensen, 1980. Yde J, Kristensen KD: Ankle fractures: supination-eversion fractures of stage II—primary and late results of operative and nonoperative treatment. Acta Orthop Scand  1980; 51:695.

Yde and Kristensen, 1980. Yde J, Kristensen KD: Ankle fractures: supination-eversion fractures of stage IV—primary and late results of operative and nonoperative treatment. Acta Orthop Scand  1980; 51:981.

Zadik, 1953. Zadik FR: Primary internal fixation of compound fractures: proceedings of the British Orthopaedic Association. J Bone Joint Surg  1953; 35B:146.

Tibial Shaft

Anderson and Hutchins, 1966. Anderson LD, Hutchins WC: Fractures of the tibia and fibula treated with casts and transfixing pins. South Med J  1966; 59:1026.

Anderson et al., 1974. Anderson LD, Hutchins WC, Wright PE, et al: Fractures of the tibia and fibula treated by casts and transfixing pins. Clin Orthop Relat Res  1974; 105:179.

Archdeacon and Wyrick, 2006. Archdeacon MT, Wyrick JD: Reduction plating for provisional fracture fixation. J Orthop Trauma  2006; 20:206.

Austin, 1981. Austin RT: The Sarmiento tibial plaster: a prospective study of 145 fractures. Injury  1981; 13:10.

Bach and Hansen, 1989. Bach AW, Hansen Jr ST: Plates versus external fixation in severe open tibial shaft fractures: a randomized trial. Clin Orthop Relat Res  1989; 241:89.

Bauer and Edwards, 1965-1966. Bauer GCH, Edwards P: Fracture of the shaft of the tibia: incidence of complications as a function of age and sex. Acta Orthop Scand  1965-1966; 36:95.

Bayne et al., 1960. Bayne LG, Morris H, Wickstrom J: Evaluation of intermedullary fixation of the tibia with the Lottes nail. South Med J  1960; 53:1429.

Behrens, 1982. Behrens F: Current concepts of external fixation of fractures,  Berlin, Springer-Verlag, 1982.

Behrens et al., 1983. Behrens F, Comfort TH, Searls K, et al: Unilateral external fixation for severe open tibial fractures: preliminary report of a prospective study. Clin Orthop Relat Res  1983; 178:111.

Behrens and Searles, 1986. Behrens F, Searles K: External fixation of the tibia: basic concepts and prospective evaluation. J Bone Joint Surg  1986; 68B:246.

Berkin and Marshall, 1972. Berkin CR, Marshall DV: Three-sided plate fixation for fractures of the tibial and femoral shafts: a follow-up note. J Bone Joint Surg  1972; 54A:1105.

Bhandari et al., 1999. Bhandari M, Adii A, Leone J, et al: Early versus delayed operative management of closed tibial fractures. Clin Orthop Relat Res  1999; 368:230.

Bhandari et al., 2001. Bhandari M, Guyatt GH, Swiontkowski MF, et al: Treatment of open fractures of the shaft of the tibia: a systematic overview and meta-analysis. J Bone Joint Surg  2001; 83B:62.

Bhandari et al., 2003. Bhandari M, Tornetta III P, Sprague S, et al: Predictors of reoperation following operative management of fractures of the tibial shaft. J Orthop Trauma  2003; 17:353.

Bhandari et al., 2005. Bhandari M, Zlowodzki M, Tornetta P, et al: Intramedullary nailing following external fixation in femoral and tibial shaft fractures. J Orthop Trauma  2005; 19:140.

Bilat et al., 1994. Bilat C, Leutenegger A, Rüedi T: Osteosynthesis of 245 tibial shaft fractures: early and late complications. Injury  1994; 25:349.

Blachut et al., 1997. Blachut PA, O'Brien PJ, Meek RN, et al: Interlocking intramedullary nailing with and without reaming for the treatment of closed fractures of the tibial shaft. J Bone Joint Surg  1997; 79A:640.

Böhler, 1961. Böhler J: Behandlung der kniescheibenbruche: osteosythese, teilexstirpation, exstirpation. Dtsch Med Wochenschr  1961; 86:1209.

Bone and Johnson, 1986. Bone LB, Johnson KD: Treatment of tibial fractures by reaming and intramedullary nailing. J Bone Joint Surg  1986; 68A:877.

Bone et al., 1994. Bone LB, Kassman S, Stegemann P, et al: Prospective study of union rate of open tibial fractures treated with locked, unreamed intramedullary nails. J Orthop Trauma  1994; 8:45.

Bono et al., 2001. Bono CM, Levine RG, Rao JP, Behrens FF: Nonarticular proximal tibia fractures: treatment options and decision making. J Am Acad Orthop Surg  2001; 9:176.

Böstman, 1986. Böstman OM: Spiral fractures of the shaft of the tibia: initial displacement and stability of reduction. J Bone Joint Surg  1986; 68:462.

Boyd et al., 1961. Boyd HB, Lipinski SW, Wiley JH: Observations on nonunion of the shafts of the long bones, with a statistical analysis of 842 patients. J Bone Joint Surg  1961; 43A:159.

Burgess et al., 1987. Burgess A, Poka A, Brumback RJ, et al: Pedestrian tibial injuries. J Trauma  1987; 27:596.

Burgess et al., 1987. Burgess AR, Poka A, Brumback RJ, et al: Management of open grade III tibial fractures. Orthop Clin North Am  1987; 18:85.

Burwell, 1971. Burwell HN: Plate fixation of tibial shaft fractures: a survey of 181 injuries. J Bone Joint Surg  1971; 53B:258.

Byrd et al., 1985. Byrd HS, Spicer T, Cierney G: Management of open tibial fractures. Plast Reconstr Surg  1985; 76:719.

Carrell, 1938. Carrell WB: Transplantation of fibula in the same leg. J Bone Joint Surg  1938; 20:627.

Caudle and Stern, 1987. Caudle RJ, Stern PJ: Severe open fractures of the tibia. J Bone Joint Surg  1987; 69A:801.

Clark, 1990. Clark RP: Quoted in: Tibial plateau fractures reparable arthroscopically. Orthop Today  1990; 10:24.

Clawson, 1974. Clawson DK: Claw toes following tibial fracture. Clin Orthop Relat Res  1974; 103:47.

Clementz, 1989. Clementz BC: Assessment of tibial torsion and rotational deformity with a new fluoroscopic technique. Clin Orthop Relat Res  1989; 245:199.

Clough, 1973. Clough JR: Segmental fractures of the shaft of the tibia. J Bone Joint Surg  1973; 55B:9.

Colen and Prieskorn, 2000. Colen RP, Prieskorn DW: Tibial tubercle-medial malleolar distance in determining tibial nail length. J Orthop Trauma  2000; 14:345.

Collinge and Sanders, 2000. Collinge C, Sanders RW: Percutaneous plating in the lower extremity. J Am Acad Orthop Surg  2000; 8:211.

Collinge et al., 2000. Collinge C, Sanders RW, DePasquale T: Treatment of complex tibial periarticular fractures using percutaneous techniques. Clin Orthop Relat Res  2000; 375:69.

Court-Brown et al., 1997. Court-Brown CM, Gustilo T, Shaw AD: Knee pain after intramedullary tibial nailing: its incidence, etiology, and outcome. J Orthop Trauma  1997; 11:103.

Court-Brown et al., 1992. Court-Brown CM, Keating JF, McQueen MM: Infection after intramedullary nailing of the tibia: incidence and protocol for management. J Bone Joint Surg  1992; 74B:770.

Court-Brown et al., 1996. Court-Brown CM, Will E, Christie J, et al: Reamed or unreamed nailing for closed tibial fractures: a prospective study in Tscherne C1 fractures. J Bone Joint Surg  1996; 78B:580.

d'Aubigne et al., 1974. d'Aubigne RM, Maurer P, Zucman J, et al: Blind intramedullary nailing for tibial fractures. Clin Orthop Relat Res  1974; 105:267.

Dehne, 1974. Dehne E: Ambulatory treatment of the fractured tibia. Clin Orthop Relat Res  1974; 105:192.

Dehne et al., 1961. Dehne E, Deffer PA, Hall RM, et al: The natural history of the fractured tibia. Surg Clin North Am  1961; 41:1495.

Digby et al., 1983. Digby JM, Holloway GMN, Webb JK: A study of function after tibial cast bracing. Injury  1983; 14:432.

Dobozi et al., 1982. Dobozi WR, Saltzman M, Brash R: Ender nailing of problem tibial shaft fractures. Orthopedics  1982; 5:1162.

Dogra et al., 2000. Dogra AS, Ruiz AL, Thompson NS, et al: Dia-metaphyseal distal tibial fractures—treatment with a shortened intramedullary nail: a review of 15 cases. Injury  2000; 31:799.

Drosos et al., 2001. Drosos G, Karnezis IA, Bishay M, et al: Initial rotational stability of distal tibial fractures nailed without proximal locking: the importance of fracture type and degree of cortical contact. Injury  2001; 32:137.

Duwelius et al., 1995. Duwelius PJ, Schmidt AH, Rubenstein RA, et al: Nonreamed interlocked intramedullary tibial nailing: one community's experience. Clin Orthop Relat Res  1995; 315:104.

Edwards, 1982. Edwards CC: Current concepts of external fixation of fractures,  Berlin, Springer-Verlag, 1982.

Edwards, 1983. Edwards CC: Staged reconstruction of complex open tibial fractures using Hoffmann external fixation: clinical decisions and dilemmas. Clin Orthop Relat Res  1983; 178:130.

Edwards et al., 1979. Edwards CC, Jaworski MF, Solana J, et al: Management of compound tibial fractures using external fixation. Am Surg  1979; 45:190.

Edwards, 1965. Edwards P: Fracture of the shaft of the tibia: 492 consecutive cases in adults: importance of the soft tissue injury. Acta Orthop Scand Suppl  1965; 76:1.

Edwards et al., 1969. Edwards P, Baver G, Widmark PH: The time of disability following fracture of the shaft of the tibia. Acta Orthop Scand  1969; 40:501.

Eijer et al., 2001. Eijer H, Hauke C, Arens S, et al: PC-Fix and local infection resistance—influence of implant design on postoperative infections development, clinical and experimental results. Injury  2001; 32(suppl B):38.

Ekeland et al., 1988. Ekeland A, Thoresen BO, Alho A, et al: Interlocking intramedullary nailing in the treatment of tibial fractures: a report of 45 cases. Clin Orthop Relat Res  1988; 231:205.

Finkemeier et al., 2000. Finkemeier CG, Schmidt AH, Kyle RF, et al: A prospective, randomized study of intramedullary nails inserted with and without reaming for the treatment of open and closed fractures of the tibial shaft. J Orthop Trauma  2000; 14:187.

Fischer and Gustilo, 1991.  Fischer MD, Gustilo RB: Timing of flap coverage: bone grafting and intramedullary nailing of tibial shaft fractures with extensive soft tissue injury. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons, Anaheim, Calif, March 1991.

Freedman and Johnson, 1995. Freedman EL, Johnson EE: Radiographic analysis of tibial fracture malalignment following intramedullary nailing. Clin Orthop Relat Res  1995; 315:25.

French and Tornetta, 2002. French B, Tornetta III P: High-energy tibial shaft fractures. Orthop Clin North Am  2002; 33:211.

Georgiadis et al., 1993. Georgiadis GM, Behrens FF, Joyce MJ, et al: Open tibial fractures with severe soft tissue loss: limb salvage compared with below-the-knee amputation. J Bone Joint Surg  1993; 75A:1431.

Georgiadis et al., 1990. Georgiadis GM, Minster GJ, Moed BR: Effects of dynamization after interlocking tibial nailing: an experimental study in dogs. J Orthop Trauma  1990; 4:323.

Gershuni and Halma, 1983. Gershuni DH, Halma G: The AO external skeletal fixator in the treatment of severe tibia fractures. J Trauma  1983; 23:986.

Gorczyca et al., 2002. Gorczyca JT, McKale J, Pugh K, et al: Modified tibial nails for treating distal tibia fractures. J Orthop Trauma  2002; 16:18.

Gregory and Sanders, 1995. Gregory P, Sanders R: The treatment of closed, unstable tibial shaft fractures with unreamed interlocking nails. Clin Orthop Relat Res  1995; 315:48.

Hamza et al., 1971. Hamza KN, Dunkerley GE, Murray CMM: Fractures of the tibia: a report on fifty patients treated by intramedullary nailing. J Bone Joint Surg  1971; 53B:696.

Harvey, 1974. Harvey Jr JP: Management of open tibial fractures. Clin Orthop Relat Res  1974; 105:154.

Hasenhuttl, 1981. Hasenhuttl K: The treatment of unstable fractures of the tibia and fibula with flexible medullary wires: a review of two hundred and thirty-five fractures. J Bone Joint Surg  1981; 63A:921.

Henley, 1989. Henley MB: Intramedullary devices for tibial fracture stabilization. Clin Orthop Relat Res  1989; 240:87.

Henley et al., 1989.  Henley MB, Mayo K, Benirschke S: Prospective comparison of unreamed interlocking IM nails and half-pin external fixation for grade II or III open tibia fractures: preliminary results. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Orthopaedic Trauma Association, Philadelphia, Oct 1989.

Henley et al., 1993. Henley MB, Meier M, Tencer AE: Influences of some design parameters and the biomechanics of unreamed tibial intramedullary nails. J Orthop Trauma  1993; 7:311.

Heppenstall et al., 1984. Heppenstall RB, Brighton CT, Esterhai Jr JL, et al: Prognostic factors in nonunion of the tibia: an evaluation of 185 cases treated with constant direct current. J Trauma  1984; 24:790.

Herzog, 1951. Herzog K: Marknagelung von tibiafrakturen mit dem oberschenkelnagel. Zentralbl Chir  1951; 76:903.

Hoaglund and States, 1967. Hoaglund FT, States JD: Factors influencing the rate of healing in tibial shaft fractures. Surg Gynecol Obstet  1967; 124:71.

Holbrook et al., 1989. Holbrook JL, Swiontkowski MF, Sanders R: Treatment of open fractures of the tibial shaft: Ender nailing versus external fixation. J Bone Joint Surg  1989; 71A:1231.

Hooper et al., 1991. Hooper GJ, Keddell RG, Penny ID: Conservative management or closed nailing for tibial shaft fractures: a randomised prospective trial. J Bone Joint Surg  1991; 73B:83.

Hutson et al., 1995. Hutson JJ, Zych GA, Cole JD, et al: Mechanical failures of intramedullary tibial nails applied without reaming. Clin Orthop Relat Res  1995; 315:129.

Jackson and Cozen, 1971. Jackson DW, Cozen L: Genu valgum as a complication of proximal tibial metaphyseal fractures in children. J Bone Joint Surg  1971; 53A:1571.

Johner and Wruhs, 1983. Johner R, Wruhs O: Classification of tibial shaft fractures and correlation with results after rigid internal fixation. Clin Orthop Relat Res  1983; 178:7.

Karlström et al., 1975. Karlström G, Lönnerholm T, Olerud S: Cavus deformity of the foot after fracture of the tibial shaft. J Bone Joint Surg  1975; 57A:893.

Karlström and Olerud, 1974. Karlström G, Olerud S: Fractures of the tibial shaft: a critical evaluation of treatment alternatives. Clin Orthop Relat Res  1974; 105:82.

Karlström and Olerud, 1975. Karlström G, Olerud S: Percutaneous pin fixation of open tibial fractures: double-frame anchorage using the Vidal-Adrey method. J Bone Joint Surg  1975; 57A:915.

Karlström and Olerud, 1977. Karlström G, Olerud S: Stable external fixation of open tibial fractures: a report of five years of experience with the Vidal-Adrey double-frame method. Orthop Rev  1977; 6:25.

Keating et al., 1997. Keating JF, O'Brien BJ, Blachut PA, et al: Locking intramedullary nailing with and without reaming for open fractures of the tibial shaft. J Bone Joint Surg  1997; 79A:334.

Keating et al., 1997. Keating JF, Orflay R, O'Brien PJ: Knee pain after tibial nailing. J Orthop Trauma  1997; 11:10.

Khatod et al., 2003. Khatod M, Botte M, Hoyt DB, et al: Outcomes in open tibia fractures: relationship between delay in treatment and infection. J Trauma  2003; 55:949.

Kimmel, 1982. Kimmel RB: Results of treatment using the Hoffmann external fixator for fractures of the tibial diaphysis. J Trauma  1982; 22:960.

Klein et al., 1990. Klein MPM, Rahn BA, Frigg R, et al: Reaming versus nonreaming in medullary nailing: interference with cortical circulation of the canine tibia. Arch Orthop Trauma Surg  1990; 109:314.

Klemm and Borner, 1986. Klemm KW, Borner M: Interlocking nailing of complex fractures of the femur and tibia. Clin Orthop Relat Res  1986; 212:89.

Knight, 1945. Knight RA: Treatment of fractures of the tibial condyles. South Med J  1945; 38:246.

Krettek et al., 1995. Krettek C, Schandelmaier P, Tsherne H: Nonreamed interlocking nailing of closed tibial fractures with severe soft tissue injury. Clin Orthop  1995; 315:34.

Lam, 1971. Lam SF: Fractures of the neck of the femur in children. J Bone Joint Surg  1971; 53A:1165.

Lang et al., 1995. Lang GJ, Cohen BE, Bosse MJ, et al: Proximal third tibial shaft fractures: should they be nailed?. Clin Orthop Relat Res  1995; 315:64.

Lange et al., 1985. Lange RH, Bach AW, Hansen ST, et al: Open tibial fractures with associated vascular injuries: prognosis for limb salvage. J Trauma  1985; 25:203.

Lawyer and Lubbers, 1980. Lawyer RB, Lubbers LM: Use of the Hoffmann apparatus in the treatment of unstable tibial fractures. J Bone Joint Surg  1980; 62A:1264.

Leunig and Hertel, 1996. Leunig M, Hertel R: Thermal necrosis after tibial reaming for intramedullary nail fixation: a report of three cases. J Bone Joint Surg  1996; 78B:584.

Lindsey and Blair, 1996. Lindsey RW, Blair SR: Closed tibial shaft fractures: which ones benefit from surgical treatment?. J Am Assoc Orthop Surg  1996; 4:35.

Lottes, 1954. Lottes JO: Blind nailing technique for insertion of the triflange medullary nail. JAMA  1954; 155:1039.

Lottes, 1958. Lottes JO: Intramedullary nailing of the tibia. Instr Course Lect  1958; 15:65.

Lottes, 1974. Lottes JO: Medullary nailing of the tibia with the triflange nail. Clin Orthop Relat Res  1974; 105:253.

Lottes et al., 1952. Lottes JO, Hill LJ, Key JA: Closed reduction, plate fixation and medullary nailing of fractures of both bones of the leg. J Bone Joint Surg  1952; 34A:861.

Mast, 1987. Mast J: Reduction techniques in fractures of the distal tibial articular surface. Tech Orthop  1987; 2:29.

Mast et al., 1989. Mast J, Jakob R, Ganz R: Planning and reduction technique in fracture surgery,  Berlin, Springer-Verlag, 1989.

Mast et al., 1988. Mast JW, Spiegel PG, Papas JN: Fractures of the tibial pilon. Clin Orthop Relat Res  1988; 230:68.

McConnell et al., 2001. McConnell T, Tornetta III P, Tilzey J, et al: Tibial portal placement: the radiographic correlate of the anatomical safe zone. J Orthop Trauma  2001; 15:207.

McKee et al., 2003. McKee MD, DiPasquale DJ, Wild LM, et al: The effect of smoking on clinical outcome and complication rates following Ilizarov reconstruction. J Orthop Trauma  2003; 17:663.

McKeever, 1953.  McKeever FM: Unpublished data, 1953.

Melis et al., 1981. Melis GC, Sotigiu F, Lepori M, et al: Intramedullary nailing in segmental tibial fractures. J Bone Joint Surg  1981; 63A:1310.

Merriam and Porter, 1983. Merriam WF, Porter KM: Hindfoot disability after a tibial shaft fracture treated by internal fixation. J Bone Joint Surg  1983; 65B:326.

Miller, 1973. Miller WE: Fractures of the hip in children from birth to adolescence. Clin Orthop Relat Res  1973; 92:155.

Moed and Watson, 1994. Moed BR, Watson JT: Intramedullary nailing of the tibial without a fracture table: the transfixion pin distractor technique. J Orthop Trauma  1994; 8:195.

Moore, 1960. Moore JR: The closed fracture of long bones. J Bone Joint Surg  1960; 42A:869.

Moore, 1981. Moore TM: Fracture-dislocation of the knee. Clin Orthop Relat Res  1981; 156:128.

Moscato et al., 1991. Moscato M, Sabetta E, Tigani D, et al: Grosse-Kempf nailing in fractures of the tibia. Ital J Orthop Traumatol  1991; 17:313.

Müller et al., 1965. Müller ME, Allgöwer M, Willenegger H: Technique of internal fixation of fractures,  New York, Springer-Verlag, 1965.

Müller et al., 1988. Müller ME, Nazarian S, Koch P: Classification AO des fractures des os longs,  Berlin, Springer Verlag, 1988.

Nassif et al., 2000. Nassif JM, Gorczyca JT, Cole JK, et al: Effect of acute reamed versus unreamed intramedullary nailing on compartment pressure when treating closed tibial shaft fractures: a randomized prospective study. J Orthop Trauma  2000; 14:554.

Nicoll, 1964. Nicoll EA: Fractures of the tibial shaft: a survey of 705 cases. J Bone Joint Surg  1964; 46B:373.

Nicoll, 1974. Nicoll EA: Closed and open management of tibial fractures. Clin Orthop Relat Res  1974; 105:144.

Olerud, 1973. Olerud S: Treatment of fractures by the Vidal-Adrey method. Acta Orthop Scand  1973; 44:516.

Olerud and Karlström, 1972. Olerud S, Karlström G: Tibial fractures treated by AO compression osteosynthesis: experiences from a five year material. Acta Orthop Scand Suppl  1972; 140:1.

Oni et al., 1988. Oni OOA, Hui A, Gregg PJ: the healing of closed tibial shaft fractures. J Bone Joint Surg  1988; 70B:787.

Oni et al., 1989. Oni OOA, Stafford H, Gregg PJ: An experimental study of the patterns of periosteal and endosteal damage in tibial shaft fractures using a rabbit trauma model. J Orthop Trauma  1989; 3:142.

Orfaly et al., 1995. Orfaly R, Keating JE, O'Brien PJ: Knee pain after tibial nailing: does the entry point matter?. J Bone Joint Surg  1995; 77B:976.

Pankovich, 1986. Pankovich AM: Letters to the editors. Arthroscopy  1986; 2:132.

Pankovich et al., 1981. Pankovich AM, Tarabishy IE, Yelda S: Flexible intramedullary nailing of tibial-shaft fractures. Clin Orthop Relat Res  1981; 160:185.

Puno et al., 1986. Puno RM, Teynor JT, Nagano J, et al: Critical analysis of results of treatment of 201 tibial shaft fractures. Clin Orthop Relat Res  1986; 212:113.

Puno et al., 1991. Puno RM, Vaughan JJ, Stetten ML, et al: Long-term effects of tibial angular malunion on the knee and ankle joints. J Orthop Trauma  1991; 5:247.

Ratliff, 1974. Ratliff AHC: Fractures of the neck of the femur in children. Orthop Clin North Am  1974; 5:903.

Ricci et al., 2001. Ricci WM, O'Boyle M, Borrelli J, et al: Fractures of the proximal third of the tibial shaft treated with intramedullary nails and blocking screws. J Orthop Trauma  2001; 15:264.

Riemer et al., 1995. Riemer BL, DiChristina DG, Cooper A, et al: Nonreamed nailing of tibial diaphyseal fractures in blunt polytrauma patients. J Orthop Trauma  1995; 9:66.

Robinson et al., 1995. Robinson CM, McLaughlan GJ, McLean IP, et al: Distal metaphyseal fractures of the tibia with minimal involvement of the ankle: classification and treatment by locked intramedullary nailing. J Bone Joint Surg  1995; 77B:781.

Rommens et al., 1989. Rommens P, Gielen J, Broos P, et al: Intrinsic problems with the external fixation device of Hoffmann-Vidal-Adrey: a critical evaluation of 117 patients with complex tibial shaft fractures. J Trauma  1989; 29:630.

Rommens and Schmit-Neuerberg, 1987. Rommens P, Schmit-Neuerberg KP: Ten years of experience with the operative management of tibial shaft fractures. J Trauma  1987; 27:917.

Rowntree and Getty, 1981. Rowntree M, Getty CJM: The knee after midshaft femoral fracture treatment: a comparison of three methods. Injury  1981; 13:125.

Rüedi et al., 1976. Rüedi T, Webb JK, Allgöwer M: Experience with the dynamic compression plate (DCP) in 418 recent fractures of the tibial shaft. Injury  1976; 7:252.

Ruiz et al., 2000. Ruiz AL, Kealey WDC, McCoy GF: Implant failure in tibial nailing. Injury  2000; 31:359.

Samuelson et al., 2002. Samuelson MA, McPherson EJ, Norris L: Anatomical assessment of the proper insertion site for a tibial intramedullary nail. J Orthop Trauma  2002; 16:23.

Sanders et al., 1994. Sanders R, Jersinovich I, Anglen J, et al: The treatment of open tibial shaft fractures using an interlocked intramedullary nail without reaming. J Orthop Trauma  1994; 8:503.

Santoro et al., 1991. Santoro VM, Benirschke K, Henley B, et al: Prospective comparison of unreamed interlocking intramedullary nail vs half-pin external fixation in open tibial fractures. Orthop Trams  1991; 15:808.(abstract)

Sarmiento, 1967. Sarmiento A: A functional below-the-knee cast for tibial fractures. J Bone Joint Surg  1967; 49A:855.

Sarmiento, 1970. Sarmiento A: A functional below-the-knee brace for tibial fractures: a report on its use in one hundred thirty-five cases. J Bone Joint Surg  1970; 52A:295.

Sarmiento, 1974. Sarmiento A: Functional bracing of tibial fractures. Clin Orthop Relat Res  1974; 105:202.

Sarmiento et al., 1979. Sarmiento A, Kinman PB, Latta LL: Fractures of the proximal tibia and tibial condyles: a clinical and laboratory comparative study. Clin Orthop Relat Res  1979; 145:136.

Sarmiento et al., 1995. Sarmiento A, Sharpe FE, Ebramzadeh E, et al: Factors influencing the outcome of closed tibial fractures treated with functional bracing. Clin Orthop Relat Res  1995; 315:8.

Sarmiento et al., 1984. Sarmiento A, Sobol PA, Sewhoy AL, et al: Prefabricated functional braces for the treatment of fractures of the tibial diaphysis. J Bone Joint Surg  1984; 66A:1328.

Schatzker, 1974. Schatzker J: Compression in surgical treatment of fractures of the tibia. Clin Orthop Relat Res  1974; 105:220.

Schemitsch et al., 1994. Schemitsch EH, Kowalski MJ, Swiontkowski MF, et al: Cortical bone blood flow in reamed and unreamed locked intramedullary nailing: a fractured tibial model in sheep. J Orthop Trauma  1994; 8:373.

Scudese et al., 1970. Scudese VA, Birotte A, Gialanella J: Tibial shaft fractures: percutaneous multiple pin fixation, short leg cast and immediate weight-bearing. Clin Orthop Relat Res  1970; 72:271.

Sedlin and Zitner, 1985. Sedlin ED, Zitner DT: The Lottes nail in the closed treatment of tibia fractures. Clin Orthop Relat Res  1985; 192:185.

Shakespeare and Henderson, 1982. Shakespeare DT, Henderson NJ: Compartmental pressure changes during calcaneal traction in tibial fractures. J Bone Joint Surg  1982; 64B:498.

Shannon et al., 2002. Shannon FJ, Mullett H, O'Rourke K: Unreamed intramedullary nail versus external fixation in grade III open tibial fractures. J Trauma  2002; 52:650.

Singer and Kellam, 1995. Singer RW, Kellam JF: Open tibial diaphyseal fractures: results of unreamed locked intramedullary nailing. Clin Orthop Relat Res  1995; 315:114.

Slatis and Rokkanen, 1967. Slatis P, Rokkanen P: Closed intramedullary nailing of tibial shaft fractures. Acta Orthop Scand  1967; 38:88.

Smith, 1974. Smith JEM: Results of early and delayed internal fixation for tibial shaft fractures: a review of 470 fractures. J Bone Joint Surg  1974; 56B:469.

Solheim and Bø, 1973. Solheim K, Bø O: Intramedullary nailing of tibial shaft fractures. Acta Orthop Scand  1973; 44:323.

Stegemann et al., 1995. Stegemann P, Lorio M, Soriano R, et al: Management protocol for unreamed interlocking tibial nails for open tibial fractures. J Orthop Trauma  1995; 9:117.

Suman, 1977. Suman RK: The management of tibial shaft fractures by early weight-bearing in a patellar tendon-bearing cast: a comparative study. J Trauma  1977; 17:97.

Swanson et al., 1990.  Swanson TV, Sutherland TB, Spiegel JD, et al: Prospective comparative study of the Lottes nail versus external fixation in open tibia fractures. Paper presented at the 57th Annual Meeting of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons, New Orleans, Feb 1990.

Tarr et al., 1985. Tarr RR, Resnick CT, Wagner KS, et al: Changes in tibiotalar joint contact areas following experimentally induced tibial angular deformities. Clin Orthop Relat Res  1985; 199:72.

Tayton and Bradley, 1983. Tayton K, Bradley J: How stiff should semi-rigid fixation of the human tibia be? A clue to the answer. J Bone Joint Surg  1983; 65B:312.

Teitz et al., 1980. Teitz CC, Carter DR, Frankel VH: Problems associated with tibial fractures with intact fibulae. J Bone Joint Surg  1980; 62A:770.

Templeman et al., 1995. Templeman D, Thomas M, Varecka T, et al: Exchange reamed intramedullary nailing for delayed union and nonunion of the tibia. Clin Orthop Relat Res  1995; 315:169.

Thunold et al., 1975. Thunold J, Varhaug JE, Bjerkeset T: Tibial shaft fractures treated by rigid internal fixation: the early results in a 4-year series. Injury  1975; 7:125.

Toivanen et al., 2002. Toivanen , Väistö O, Kannus P, et al: Anterior knee pain after intramedullary nailing of fractures of the tibial shaft: a prospective, randomized study comparing two different nail-insertion techniques. J Bone Joint Surg  2002; 84A:580.

Tornetta et al., 1994. Tornetta III P, Bergman M, Watnik N, et al: Treatment of grade IIIB open tibial fractures. J Bone Joint Surg  1994; 76B:13.

Trabulsy et al., 1994. Trabulsy PP, Kerley SM, Hoffman WY: A prospective study of early soft tissue coverage of grade IIIB tibial fractures. J Trauma  1994; 36:661.

Trafton, 1988. Trafton PG: Closed unstable fractures of the tibia. Clin Orthop  1988; 230:58.

Tu et al., 1995. Tu YK, Lin CH, Su JI, et al: Unreamed interlocking nail versus external fixator for open type III tibia fractures. J Trauma  1995; 39:361.

Tucker, 1989. Tucker H: Management of unstable tibial fractures using the method of Ilizarov. Fla Orthop Soc J  1989; 2:36.

Velazco et al., 1981. Velazco A, Whitesides Jr TE, Fleming LL: Fractures of the tibia treated with Lottes nail fixation. South Med J  1981; 74:427.

Velazco et al., 1983. Velazco A, Whitesides Jr TE, Fleming LL: Open fractures of the tibia treated with the Lottes nail. J Bone Joint Surg  1983; 65A:879.

W-Dahl et al., 2003. W-Dahl A, Toksvig-Larsen S, Lindstrand A: No difference between daily and weekly pin site care: a randomized study of 50 patients with external fixation. Acta Orthop Scand  2003; 74:704.

Waddell and Reardon, 1983. Waddell JP, Reardon GP: Complications of tibial shaft fractures. Clin Orthop Relat Res  1983; 178:173.

Watson-Jones, 1952. Watson-Jones R: Fractures and joint injuries,  4th ed. Baltimore, Williams & Wilkins, 1952. (vol 1) and 1955 (vol 2)

Weissman et al., 1966. Weissman SL, Herold HZ, Engelberg M: Fractures of the middle two-thirds of the tibial shaft: results of treatment without internal fixation in one hundred and forty consecutive cases. J Bone Joint Surg  1966; 48A:257.

Whittle, 1996. Whittle AP: Clinical results of unreamed nailing of tibial and femoral fractures. Tech Orthop  1996; 11:67.

Whittle et al., 1992. Whittle AP, Russell TA, Taylor JC, et al: Treatment of open fracture of the tibial shaft with the use of interlocking nails without reaming. J Bone Joint Surg  1992; 74A:1162.

Whittle et al., 1995. Whittle AP, Wester W, Russell TA: Fatigue failure in small diameter tibial nails. Clin Orthop Relat Res  1995; 315:119.

Wiss, 1986. Wiss DA: Flexible medullary nailing of the acute tibial shaft fractures. Clin Orthop Relat Res  1986; 212:122.

Wiss and Stetson, 1995. Wiss DA, Stetson WB: Unstable fractures of the tibia treated with a reamed intramedullary interlocking nail. Clin Orthop Relat Res  1995; 315:56.

Xenos et al., 1995. Xenos JS, Hopkinson WJ, Mulligan ME, et al: The tibiofibular syndesmosis. J Bone Joint Surg  1995; 77A:847.

Yang et al., 1995. Yang EC, Weiner L, Strauss E, et al: Metaphyseal dissociation fractures of the proximal tibia: an analysis of treatment and complications. Am J Orthop  1995; 24:695.

Zucman and Maurer, 1969. Zucman J, Maurer P: Two-level fractures of the tibia. J Bone Joint Surg  1969; 51B:686.

Tibial Condyle and Tibial Plateau

Ali et al., 2003. Ali AM, Saleh M, Bolongar S, et al: The strength of different fixation techniques for bicondylar tibial plateau fractures—a biomechanical study. Clin Biomech  2003; 18:864.

Ali et al., 2001. Ali AM, Yand L, Hashmi M, et al: Bicondylar tibial plateau fractures managed with the Sheffield Hybrid Fixator: biomechanical study and operative technique. Injury  2001; 32(suppl D):86.

Apley, 1956. Apley AG: Fractures of the lateral tibial condyle treated by skeletal traction and early mobilisation: a review of sixty cases with special reference to the long-term results. J Bone Joint Surg  1956; 38B:699.

Apley, 1979. Apley AG: Fractures of the tibial plateau. Orthop Clin North Am  1979; 10:61.

Bakalim and Wilppula, 1973. Bakalim G, Wilppula E: Fractures of the tibial condyles. Acta Orthop Scand  1973; 44:311.

Ballmer et al., 2000. Ballmer FT, Hertel R, Nötzli HP: Treatment of tibial plateau fractures with small fragment internal fixation: a preliminary report. J Orthop Trauma  2000; 14:467.

Barbieri et al., 1996. Barbieri R, Schenk R, Koval K, et al: Hybrid external fixation in the treatment of tibial plafond fractures. Clin Orthop Relat Res  1996; 332:16.

Barei et al., 2004. Barei DP, Nork SE, Mills WJ, et al: Complications associated with internal fixation of high-energy bicondylar tibial plateau fractures utilizing a two-incision technique. J Orthop Trauma  2004; 18:649.

Barei et al., 2006. Barei DP, Nork SE, Mills WJ, et al: Functional outcomes of severe bicondylar tibial plateau fractures treated with dual incisions and medial and lateral plates. J Bone Joint Surg  2006; 88A:1713.

Benirschke et al., 1992. Benirschke SK, Agnew S, Mayo KA, et al: Immediate internal fixation of open, complex tibial plateau fractures: treatment by a standard protocol. J Orthop Trauma  1992; 6:78.

Bennett and Browner, 1994. Bennett WF, Browner B: Tibial plateau fractures: a study of associated soft tissue injury. J Orthop Trauma  1994; 8:183.

Berkson and Virkus, 2006. Berkson EM, Virkus WW: High-energy tibial plateau fractures. J Am Acad Orthop Surg  2006; 14:20.

Bhattacharyya et al., 2005. Bhattacharyya T, McCarty LP, Harris MB, et al: The posterior shearing tibial plateau fracture: treatment and results. J Orthop Trauma  2005; 19:305.

Blokker et al., 1984. Blokker CP, Rorabeck CH, Bourne RB: Tibial plateau fractures: an analysis of the results of treatment in 60 patients. Clin Orthop Relat Res  1984; 182:193.

Bowes and Hohl, 1982. Bowes DN, Hohl M: Tibial condylar fractures: evaluation of treatment and outcome. Clin Orthop Relat Res  1982; 171:104.

Brown et al., 1988. Brown TD, Anderson DD, Nepola JV, et al: Contact stress aberrations following imprecise reduction of simple tibial plateau fractures. J Orthop Res  1988; 6:851.

Buchko and Johnson, 1996. Buchko GM, Johnson DH: Arthroscopy assisted operative management of tibial plateau fractures. Clin Orthop Relat Res  1996; 332:29.

Burri et al., 1979. Burri C, Bartzke G, Coldewey J, et al: Fractures of the tibial plateau. Clin Orthop Relat Res  1979; 138:84.

Caspari et al., 1985. Caspari RB, Hutton PMJ, Whipple TL, et al: The role of arthroscopy in the management of tibial plateau fractures. Arthroscopy  1985; 1:76.

Cole et al., 2003. Cole PA, Zlowodzki M, Kregor PJ: Less invasive stabilization systems (LISS) for fractures of the proximal tibia: indications, surgical technique and preliminary results of the UMC clinical trial. Injury Int J Care Injured  2003; 34:S-A16.

Cole et al., 2004. Cole PA, Zlowodzki M, Kregor PJ: Treatment of proximal tibia fractures using the less invasive stabilization system: surgical experience and early clinical results in 77 fractures. J Orthop Trauma  2004; 18:528.

Colletti et al., 1996. Colletti P, Greenberg H, Terk MR: MR findings in patients with acute tibial plateau fractures. Comput Med Imaging Graph  1996; 20:389.

Delamarter and Hohl, 1989. Delamarter R, Hohl M: The cast brace and tibial plateau fractures. Clin Orthop Relat Res  1989; 242:26.

Delamarter et al., 1990. Delamarter R, Hohl M, Hopp Jr E: Ligament injuries associated with tibial plateau fractures. Clin Orthop Relat Res  1990; 250:226.

Dias et al., 1987. Dias JJ, Stirling AJ, Finlay DBL, et al: Computerised axial tomography for tibial plateau fractures. J Bone Joint Surg  1987; 69B:84.

Dovey and Heerfordt, 1971. Dovey H, Heerfordt J: Tibial condyle fractures: a follow-up of 200 cases. Acta Chir Scand  1971; 137:521.

Drennan et al., 1979. Drennan DB, Locher FG, Maylahn DJ: Fractures of the tibial plateau: treatment by closed reduction and spica cast. J Bone Joint Surg  1979; 61A:989.

Duwelius and Connolly, 1988. Duwelius PJ, Connolly JF: Closed reduction of tibial plateau fractures: a comparison of functional and roentgenographic end results. Clin Orthop Relat Res  1988; 230:116.

Egol et al., 2004. Egol KA, Su E, Tejwani NC, et al: Treatment of complex tibial plateau fractures using the less invasive stabilization system plate: clinical experience and a laboratory comparison with double plating. J Trauma  2004; 57:340.

Egol et al., 2005. Egol KA, Tejwani NC, Capla EL, et al: Staged management of high-energy proximal tibia fractures (OTA types 41): the results of a prospective, standardized protocol. J Orthop Trauma  2005; 19:448.

Elstrom et al., 1976. Elstrom J, Pankovich AM, Sassoon H, et al: The use of tomography in the assessment of fractures of the tibial plateau. J Bone Joint Surg  1976; 58A:551.

French and Tornetta, 2002. French B, Tornetta P: High-energy tibial shaft fractures. Orthop Clin North Am  2002; 33:211.

Gausewitz and Hohl, 1986. Gausewitz S, Hohl M: The significance of early motion in the treatment of tibial plateau fractures. Clin Orthop Relat Res  1986; 202:135.

Georgiadis, 1994. Georgiadis GM: Combined anterior and posterior approaches for complex tibial plateau fractures. J Bone Joint Surg  1994; 76B:285.

Gossling and Peterson, 1979. Gossling HR, Peterson CA: A new surgical approach in the treatment of depressed lateral condylar fractures of the tibia. Clin Orthop Relat Res  1979; 140:96.

Hand et al., 1971. Hand WL, Hand CR, Dunn AW: Avulsion fractures of the tibial tubercle. J Bone Joint Surg  1971; 53A:1579.

Handelberg et al., 1991. Handelberg F, Casteleyn P, DeRoeck P: Arthroscopic assessment and treatment of tibial plateau fractures. Arthroscopy  1991; 7:318.

Hohl, 1967. Hohl M: Tibial condylar fractures: an instructional course lecture. The American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons. J Bone Joint Surg  1967; 49A:1455.

Hohl, 1975. Hohl M: Treatment methods in tibial condylar fractures. South Med J  1975; 68:985.

Hohl and Luck, 1956. Hohl M, Luck JV: Fractures of the tibial condyle: a clinical and experimental study. J Bone Joint Surg  1956; 38A:1001.

Holzach et al., 1994. Holzach P, Matter P, Minter J: Arthroscopically assisted treatment of lateral tibial plateau fractures in skiers: use of a cannulated reduction system. J Orthop Trauma  1994; 8:273.

Honkonen, 1995. Honkonen SE: Degenerative arthritis after tibial plateau fractures. J Orthop Trauma  1995; 9:273.

Horwitz et al., 1999. Horwitz DS, Bachus KN, Craig MA, et al: A biomechanical analysis of internal fixation of complex tibial plateau fractures. J Orthop Trauma  1999; 13:545.

Itokazu and Matsunaga, 1993. Itokazu M, Matsunaga T: Arthroscopic restoration of depressed tibial plateau fractures using bone and hydroxyapatite grafts. Arthroscopy  1993; 9:103.

Jackson, 1972. Jackson DW: The use of autologous fibula for a prop graft in depressed lateral tibial plateau fractures. Clin Orthop Relat Res  1972; 87:110.

Jackson et al., 1988. Jackson DW, Jennings LD, Maywood RM, et al: Magnetic resonance imaging of the knee. Am J Sports Med  1988; 16:29.

Jacobs, 1965. Jacobs JE: Patellar graft for severely depressed comminuted fractures of the lateral tibial condyle. J Bone Joint Surg  1965; 47A:842.

Jennings, 1985. Jennings JE: Arthroscopic management of tibial plateau fractures. Arthroscopy  1985; 1:160.

Jennings, 1986. Jennings JE: Letters to the editors. Arthroscopy  1986; 2:133.

Jensen et al., 1990. Jensen DB, Rude C, Duus B, et al: Tibial plateau fractures: a comparison of conservative and surgical treatment. J Bone Joint Surg  1990; 72B:49.

Kennedy and Bailey, 1968. Kennedy JC, Bailey WH: Experimental tibial-plateau fractures: studies of the mechanism and a classification. J Bone Joint Surg  1968; 50A:1522.

Kennedy et al., 1966. Kennedy JC, Grainger RW, McGraw RW: Osteochondral fractures of the femoral condyles. J Bone Joint Surg  1966; 48B:436.

Kettlekamp et al., 1988. Kettlekamp DB, Hillberry BM, Murrish DE, et al: Degenerative arthritis of the knee secondary to fracture malunion. Clin Orthop Relat Res  1988; 234:159.

Knight, 1945. Knight RA: Treatment of fractures of the tibial condyles. South Med J  1945; 38:246.

Kregor, 2002. Kregor PJ: Distal femur fractures with complex articular involvement: management by articular exposure and submuscular fixation. Orthop Clin N Am  2002; 33:153.

Kumar et al., 1996. Kumar A, Russell TA, Davidson RL, et al: Fibular head autograft—salvage technique for severely comminuted lateral fractures of the tibial plateau: report of five cases. Am J Orthop  1996; 25:766.

Lachiewicz and Funcik, 1990. Lachiewicz PF, Funcik T: Factors influencing the results of open reduction and internal fixation of tibial plateau fractures. Clin Orthop Relat Res  1990; 259:210.

Lansinger et al., 1986. Lansinger O, Bergman B, Korner L, et al: Tibial condylar fractures: a twenty-year follow-up. J Bone Joint Surg  1986; 68A:13.

Lee, 1957. Lee HG: Osteoplastic reconstruction in severe fractures of the tibial condyles: utilization of the anterior superior iliac spine. Am J Surg  1957; 94:940.

Lemon and Bartlett, 1985. Lemon RA, Bartlett DH: Arthroscopic assisted internal fixation of certain fractures about the knee. J Trauma  1985; 25:355.

Lobenhoffer et al., 1999. Lobenhoffer P, Schulze M, Gerich T, et al: Closed reduction/percutaneous fixation of tibial plateau fractures: arthroscopic versus fluoroscopic control of reduction. J Orthop Trauma  1999; 13:426.

Lucht and Pilgaard, 1971. Lucht U, Pilgaard S: Fractures of the tibial condyles. Acta Orthop Scand  1971; 42:366.

Marmor, 1988. Marmor L: Fracture as a complication of osteonecrosis of the tibial plateau: case report. J Bone Joint Surg  1988; 70A:454.

Marsh et al., 1995. Marsh JL, Smith ST, Do TT: External fixation and limited internal fixation for complex fractures of the tibial plateau. J Bone Joint Surg  1995; 77A:661.

Martin, 1960. Martin AF: The pathomechanics of the knee joint, I: the medial collateral ligament and lateral tibial plateau fractures. J Bone Joint Surg  1960; 42A:13.

McConkey and Meeuwisse, 1988. McConkey JP, Meeuwisse W: Tibial plateau fractures in alpine skiing. Am J Sports Med  1988; 16:159.

McDonnell and Butler, 1988. McDonnell MF, Butler III JE: Osteochondral fracture of the tibial plateau in a ballerina. Am J Sports Med  1988; 16:417.

Meyers and Harvey, 1971. Meyers MH, Harvey JP: Traumatic dislocation of the knee joint. J Bone Joint Surg  1971; 53A:16.

Meyers and McKeever, 1970. Meyers MH, McKeever FM: Fracture of the intercondylar eminence of the tibia. J Bone Joint Surg  1970; 52A:1677.

Meyers et al., 1975. Meyers MH, Moore TM, Harvey JP: Traumatic dislocation of the knee joint. J Bone Joint Surg  1975; 57A:430.

Mills and Nork, 2002. Mills WJ, Nork SE: Open reduction and internal fixation of high-energy tibial plateau fractures. Orthop Clin North Am  2002; 33:177.

Moore and Harvey, 1974. Moore TM, Harvey Jr JP: Roentgenographic measurement of tibial-plateau depression due to fracture. J Bone Joint Surg  1974; 56A:155.

Moore et al., 1976. Moore TM, Meyers MH, Harvey JP: Collateral ligamentous laxity of the knee: a long-term comparison between plateau fractures and normal. J Bone Joint Surg  1976; 59A:594.

Moore et al., 1987. Moore TM, Patzakis MJ, Harvey JP: Tibial plateau fractures: definition, demographics, treatment rationale, and long-term results of closed traction management or operative reduction. J Orthop Trauma  1987; 1:97.

Morandi and Pearse, 1996. Morandi M, Pearse MF: Management of complex tibial plateau fractures with the Ilizarov external fixator. Tech Orthop  1996; 11:125.

Mueller et al., 2005. Mueller CA, Eingartner C, Schreitmueller E, et al: Primary stability of various forms of osteosynthesis in the treatment of fractures of the proximal tibia. J Bone Joint Surg  2005; 87B:426.

Mueller et al., 2003. Mueller KL, Karunakar MA, Frankenburg EP, et al: Bicondylar tibial plateau fractures: a biomechanical study. Clin Orthop Relat Res  2003; 412:189.

Nork et al., 2006. Nork SE, Barei DP, Schildhauer TA, et al: Intramedullary nailing of proximal quarter tibial fractures. J Orthop Trauma  2006; 20:523.

Peindl et al., 2004. Peindl RD, Zura RD, Vincent A, et al: Unstable proximal extraarticular tibia fractures: a biomechanical evaluation of four methods of fixation. J Orthop Trauma  2004; 18:540.

Perry et al., 1984. Perry CR, Evans LG, Rice S, et al: A new surgical approach to fractures of the lateral tibial plateau. J Bone Joint Surg  1984; 66A:1236.

Rafii et al., 1987. Rafii M, Lamont JG, Firooznia H: Tibial plateau fractures: CT evaluation and classification. Crit Rev Diagn Imaging  1987; 27:91.

Rasmussen, 1972. Rasmussen PS: Tibial condylar fractures as a cause of degenerative arthritis. Acta Orthop Scand  1972; 43:566.

Rasmussen, 1973. Rasmussen PS: Tibial condylar fractures: impairment of knee joint stability as an indication for surgical treatment. J Bone Joint Surg  1973; 55A:1331.

Reibel and Wade, 1962. Reibel DB, Wade PA: Fractures of the tibial plateau. J Trauma  1962; 2:337.

Reiner, 1982. Reiner MJ: The arthroscope in tibial plateau fractures: its use in evaluation of soft tissue and bony injury. J Am Osteopath Assoc  1982; 81:704.

Ricci et al., 2004. Ricci WM, Rudzki JR, Borrelli J: Treatment of complex proximal tibia fractures with the less invasive skeletal stabilization system. J Orthop Trauma  2004; 18:521.

Rich and Dabezies, 1987. Rich C, Dabezies EJ: Tibial plateau fractures. Orthopedics  1987; 10:1455.

Ries and Meinhard, 1990. Ries MD, Meinhard BP: Medial external fixation with lateral plate internal fixation in metaphyseal tibia fractures: a report of eight cases associated with severe soft tissue injury. Clin Orthop Relat Res  1990; 256:215.

Roberts, 1968. Roberts JM: Fractures of the condyles of the tibia: an anatomical and clinical end-result study of one hundred cases. J Bone Joint Surg  1968; 50A:1505.

Savoie et al., 1987. Savoie FH, Vander Griend RA, Ward EF, et al: Tibial plateau fractures: a review of operative treatment using AO technique. Orthopedics  1987; 10:745.

Schatzker et al., 2002. Schatzker J, McBroom R, Bruce D: The tibial plateau fracture: the Toronto experience 1968–1975. Clin Orthop Relat Res  2002; 138:94.

Schulak and Gunn, 1975. Schulak DJ, Gunn DR: Fractures of the tibial plateaus: a review of the literature. Clin Orthop Relat Res  1975; 109:166.

Shybut and Spiegel, 1979. Shybut GT, Spiegel PG: Tibial plateau fractures. Clin Orthop Relat Res  1979; 138:12.(editorial)

Sirkin et al., 2000. Sirkin MS, Bono CM, Reilly MC, et al: Percutaneous methods of tibial plateau fixation. Clin Orthop Relat Res  2000; 375:60.

Sommer et al., 2004. Sommer C, Müller M, Hanson BD: Locking compression plate loosening and plate breakage: a report of four cases. J Orthop Trauma  2004; 18:572.

Stamer et al., 1994. Stamer DT, Schenk R, Staggies B, et al: Bicondylar tibial plateau fractures treated with a hybrid ring external fixator: a preliminary study. J Orthop Trauma  1994; 8:455.

Tscherne and Lobenhoffer, 1993. Tscherne H, Lobenhoffer P: Tibial plateau fractures: management and expected results. Clin Orthop  1993; 292:87.

Volpin et al., 1990. Volpin G, Dowd GSE, Stein H, et al: Degenerative arthritis after intra-articular fractures of the knee: long-term results. J Bone Joint Surg  1990; 72B:634.

Waddell et al., 1981. Waddell JP, Johnston DWC, Neidre A: Fractures of the tibial plateau: a review of ninety-five patients and comparison of treatment methods. J Trauma  1981; 21:376.

Waldrop et al., 1988. Waldrop JI, Macey TI, Trettin JC, et al: Fractures of the posterolateral tibial plateau. Am J Sports Med  1988; 16:492.

Watson, 1994. Watson JT: High energy fractures of the tibial plateau. Orthop Clin North Am  1994; 25:723.

Watson et al., 2002. Watson JT, Ripple S, Hoshaw SJ, et al: Hybrid external fixation for tibial plateau fractures: clinical and biomechanical correlation. Orthop Clin North Am  2002; 33:199.

Weigel and Marsh, 2002. Weigel DP, Marsh JL: High-energy fractures of the tibial plateau. J Bone Joint Surg  2002; 84A:1541.

Weiner et al., 1995. Weiner LS, Kelley M, Yang E, et al: The use of combination internal fixation and hybrid external fixation in severe proximal tibia fractures. J Orthop Trauma  1995; 9:244.

Wilppula and Bakalim, 1972. Wilppula E, Bakalim G: Ligamentous tear concomitant with tibial condylar fracture. Acta Orthop Scand  1972; 43:292.

Wilson and Jacobs, 1952. Wilson WJ, Jacobs JE: Patellar graft for severely depressed comminuted fractures of the lateral tibial condyle. J Bone Joint Surg  1952; 34A:436.

Young and Barrak, 1994. Young MJ, Barrak RL: Complications in internal fixation of tibial plateau fractures. Orthop Rev  1994; 149:


Ahstrom, 1965. Ahstrom Jr JP: Osteochondral fracture in the knee joint associated with hypermobility and dislocation of the patella: report of eighteen cases. J Bone Joint Surg  1965; 47A:1491.

Andrews and Hughston, 1977. Andrews JR, Hughston JC: Treatment of patellar fractures by partial patellectomy. South Med J  1977; 70:809.

Benjamin et al., 1987. Benjamin J, Bried J, Dohm M, et al: Biomechanical evaluation of various forms of fixation of transverse patellar fractures. J Orthop Trauma  1987; 1:219.

Berg, 1997. Berg EE: Open reduction internal fixation of displaced transverse patella fractures with figure-eight wiring through parallel cannulated compression screws. J Orthop Trauma  1997; 11:573.

Bickel and Johnson, 1971. Bickel WH, Johnson KA: Z-plasty patellectomy. Surg Gynecol Obstet  1971; 132:985.

Böstman et al., 1981. Böstman O, Kiviluoto O, Nirhamo J: Comminuted displaced fractures of the patella. Injury  1981; 13:196.

Boström, 1972. Boström A: Fracture of the patella: a study of 422 patellar fractures. Acta Orthop Scand Suppl  1972; 143:1.

Brooke, 1936-1937. Brooke R: The treatment of fractured patella by excision: a study of morphology and function. Br J Surg  1936-1937; 24:733.

Burton and Thomas, 1972. Burton VW, Thomas HM: Results of excision of the patella. Surg Gynecol Obstet  1972; 135:753.

Burvant et al., 1994. Burvant JG, Thomas KA, Alexander R, et al: Evaluation of methods of internal fixation of transverse patella fractures: a biomechanical study. J Orthop Trauma  1994; 8:147.

Carpenter et al., 1993. Carpenter JE, Kasman R, Matthews LS: Fractures of the patella. J Bone Joint Surg  1993; 75A:1550.

Catalano et al., 1995. Catalano JB, Iannacone WM, Marczyk S, et al: Open fractures of the patella: long-term functional outcome. J Trauma  1995; 39:439.

Chang et al., 2005. Chang MA, Rand JA, Trousdale RT: Patellectomy after total knee arthroplasty. Clin Orthop  2005; 440:175.

Chen et al., 1998. Chen A, Hou C, Bao J, et al: Comparison of biodegradable and metallic tension-band fixation for patella fractures: 38 patients followed for 2 years. Acta Orthop Scand  1998; 69:39.

Codavilla, 1899. Codavilla A: Sur tendinei nella practica ortopedica. Orch Ortop  1899; 16:225.

Convery et al., 1972. Convery FR, Akeson WH, Keown GH: The repair of large osteochondral defects: an experimental study in horses. Clin Orthop Relat Res  1972; 82:253.

Crenshaw and Wilson, 1954. Crenshaw AH, Wilson FD: The surgical treatment of fractures of the patella. South Med J  1954; 47:716.

Curtis, 1990. Curtis MJ: Internal fixation for fractures of the patella: a comparison of two methods. J Bone Joint Surg  1990; 72B:280.

Devas, 1960. Devas MB: Stress fractures of the patella. J Bone Joint Surg  1960; 42B:71.

Duthie and Hutchinson, 1958. Duthie HL, Hutchinson JR: The results of partial and total excision of the patella. J Bone Joint Surg  1958; 40B:75.

Edwards et al., 1989. Edwards B, Johnell O, Redlund-Johnell I: Patellar fractures: a 30-year follow-up. Acta Orthop Scand  1989; 60:712.

Einola et al., 1976. Einola S, Aho AJ, Kallio P: Patellectomy after fracture: long-term follow-up results with special reference to functional disability. Acta Orthop Scand  1976; 47:441.

Foppen et al., 1994. Foppen GM, Kramer WL, Bultman H: Treatment of medial tangential osteochondral fractures of the patella, with resorbable materials: case report. Eur J Surg  1994; 160:649.

Frandsen and Kristensen, 1979. Frandsen PA, Kristensen H: Osteochondral fracture associated with dislocation of the patella: another mechanism of injury. J Trauma  1979; 19:195.

Freiberger and Kotzen, 1967. Freiberger RH, Kotzen LM: Fracture of the medial margin of the patella, a finding diagnostic of lateral dislocation. Radiology  1967; 88:902.

Gosal et al., 2001. Gosal HS, Singh P, Field RE: Clinical experience of patellar fracture fixation using metal wire or non-absorbable polyester—a study of 37 cases. Injury  2001; 32:129.

Griswold, 1954. Griswold AS: Fractures of the patella. Clin Orthop Relat Res  1954; 4:44.

Günal and Karatosun, 2001. Günal I, Karatosun V: Patellectomy: an overview with reconstructive procedures. Clin Orthop Relat Res  2001; 389:74.

Günal et al., 1997. Günal I, Taymaz A, Kose N, et al: Patellectomy with vastus medialis obliquus advancement for comminuted patellar fractures: a prospective randomized trial. J Bone Joint Surg  1997; 79B:13.

Haxton, 1945. Haxton HA: The function of the patella and the effects of its excision. Surg Gynecol Obstet  1945; 80:389.

Heckman and Alkire, 1984. Heckman JD, Alkire CC: Distal patellar pole fractures: a proposed common mechanism of injury. Am J Sports Med  1984; 12:424.

Ho and Fang, 1995. Ho TK, Fang D: Posterior cruciate avulsion fracture associated with a large inverted medial tibial osteochondral fragment. J Trauma  1995; 38:653.

Hoffer and Schechter, 1966. Hoffer MM, Schechter DE: Results of seventy-five patellectomies in seventy patients. Am J Surg  1966; 111:645.

Houghton and Ackroyd, 1979. Houghton GR, Ackroyd CE: Sleeve fractures of the patella in children: a report of three cases. J Bone Joint Surg  1979; 61B:165.

Hung et al., 1985. Hung LK, Chan KM, Chow YN, et al: Fractured patella: operative treatment using the tension band principle. Injury  1985; 16:343.

Kaufer, 1971. Kaufer H: Mechanical function of the patella. J Bone Joint Surg  1971; 53A:1551.

Kennedy et al., 1966. Kennedy JC, Grainger RW, McGraw RW: Osteochondral fractures of the femoral condyles. J Bone Joint Surg  1966; 48B:436.

Leung et al., 1983. Leung PC, Mak KH, Lee SY: Percutaneous tension band wiring: a new method of internal fixation for mildly displaced patella fracture. J Trauma  1983; 23:62.

Levitt, 1973. Levitt RL: A long-term evaluation of patellar prostheses. Clin Orthop Relat Res  1973; 97:153.

Liang and Wu, 1987. Liang QY, Wu JW: Fracture of the patella treated by open reduction and external compressive skeletal fixation. J Bone Joint Surg  1987; 69A:83.

Ma et al., 1984. Ma YZ, Zhang YF, Qu KF, et al: Treatment of fractures of the patella with percutaneous suture. Clin Orthop Relat Res  1984; 191:235.

Makino et al., 2002. Makino A, Aponte-Tinao L, Muscolo DL, et al: Arthroscopic-assisted surgical technique for treating patella fractures. Arthroscopy  2002; 18:671.

Marder et al., 1993. Marder RA, Swanson TV, Sharkey NA, et al: Effects of partial patellectomy and reattachment of the patellar tendon on patellofemoral contact areas and pressures. J Bone Joint Surg  1993; 75A:35.

Marya et al., 1987. Marya SKS, Bhan S, Dave PK: Comparative study of knee function after patellectomy and osteosynthesis with a tension band wire following patellar fractures. Int Surg  1987; 72:211.

Matejcic et al., 2006. Matejcic A, Smiljanic B, Bekavac-Beslin M, et al: The basket plate in the osteosynthesis of comminuted fractures of distal pole of the patella. Injury  2006; 37:525.

Matthewson and Dandy, 1978. Matthewson MH, Dandy DJ: Osteochondral fractures of the lateral femoral condyle: a result of indirect violence to the knee. J Bone Joint Surg  1978; 60B:199.

Mayer and Seidlein, 1988. Mayer G, Seidlein H: Chondral and osteochondral fractures of the knee joint—treatment and results. Arch Orthop Trauma Surg  1988; 107:154.

McGreal et al., 1999. McGreal G, Reidy D, Joy A, et al: The biomechanical evaluation of polyester as a tension band for the internal fixation of patellar fractures. J Med Eng Technol  1999; 23:53.

Milgram, 1943. Milgram JE: Tangential osteochondral fracture of the patella. J Bone Joint Surg  1943; 25:271.

Mishra, 1972. Mishra US: Late results of patellectomy in fractured patella. Acta Orthop Scand  1972; 43:256.

O'Donoghue, 1972. O'Donoghue DH: Facetectomy. South Med J  1972; 65:645.

Patel et al., 2000. Patel VR, Parks BG, Wang Y, et al: Fixation of patella fractures with braided polyester suture: a biomechanical study. Injury  2000; 31:1.

Peeples and Margo, 1978. Peeples RE, Margo MK: Function after patellectomy. Clin Orthop Relat Res  1978; 132:180.

Perry et al., 1988. Perry CR, McCarthy JA, Kain CC, et al: Patellar fixation protected with a load-sharing cable: a mechanical and clinical study. J Orthop Trauma  1988; 2:234.

Peterson and Stener, 1976. Peterson L, Stener B: Distal disinsertion of the patellar ligament combined with avulsion fractures at the medial and lateral margins of the patella: a case of report and an experimental study. Acta Orthop Scand  1976; 47:680.

Plaga et al., 1992. Plaga BR, Royster RM, Donigian AM, et al: Fixation of osteochondral fractures in rabbit knees: a comparison of Kirschner wires, fibrin sealant, and polydioxanone pins. J Bone Joint Surg  1992; 74B:292.

Pritsch et al., 1995. Pritsch M, Velkes S, Levy O, et al: Suture fixation of osteochondral fractures of the patella. J Bone Joint Surg  1995; 77B:154.

Rae and Khasawneh, 1988. Rae PS, Khasawneh ZM: Herbert screw fixation of osteochondral fractures of the patella. Injury  1988; 19:116.

Rorabeck and Bobechko, 1976. Rorabeck CH, Bobechko WP: Acute dislocation of the patella with osteochondral fracture: review of eighteen cases. J Bone Joint Surg  1976; 58B:237.

Saltzman et al., 1990. Saltzman CL, Goulet JA, McClellan T, et al: Results of treatment of displaced patellar fractures by partial patellectomy. J Bone Joint Surg  1990; 72A:1279.

Scilaris et al., 1998. Scilaris TA, Grantham JL, Prayson MJ, et al: Biomechanical comparison of fixation methods in transverse patella fractures. J Orthop Trauma  1998; 12:356.

Shorbe and Dobson, 1958. Shorbe HB, Dobson CH: Patellectomy. Repair of the extensor mechanism. J Bone Joint Surg  1958; 40A:1281.

Tandogan et al., 2002. Tandogan RN, Demirors H, Tuncay CI, et al: Arthroscopic-assisted percutaneous screw fixation of select patellar fractures. Arthroscopy  2002; 18:156.

Thompson and Schweigel, 1968. Thompson WJ, Schweigel JF: Patellectomy: a 21-year follow-up. Can J Surg  1968; 11:173.

Torchia and Lewellen, 1996. Torchia ME, Lewellen DG: Open fractures of the patella. J Orthop Trauma  1996; 10:403.

Turgut et al., 2001. Turgut A, Gunal I, Acar S, et al: Arthroscopic-assisted percutaneous stabilization of patellar fractures. Clin Orthop Relat Res  2001; 389:57.

Weber et al., 1980. Weber MJ, Janecki CJ, McLeod P, et al: Efficacy of various forms of fixation of transverse fractures of the patella. J Bone Joint Surg  1980; 62A:215.

West, 1962. West FE: End results of patellectomy. J Bone Joint Surg  1962; 44A:1089.

Yang and Byun, 2003. Yang KH, Byun YS: Separate vertical wiring for the fixation of comminuted fractures of the inferior pole of the patella. J Bone Joint Surg  2003; 85B:1155.

Zhao et al., 1999. Zhao J, Wu X, Peng X: Biomechanical experiment and clinical report of modified patellectomy for polar fracture of the patella. Clin J Traumatol  1999; 2:122.


Ali and Saleh, 2000. Ali F, Saleh M: Treatment of isolated complex distal femoral fractures by external fixation. Injury  2000; 31:139.

Anderson, 1967. Anderson RL: Conservative treatment of fractures of the femur. J Bone Joint Surg  1967; 49A:1371.

Arazi et al., 2001. Arazi M, Memik R, Ogun TC, Yel M: Ilizarov external fixation for severely comminuted supracondylar fractures of the distal femur. J Bone Joint Surg  2001; 83B:663.

Bain et al., 1997. Bain GI, Zacest AC, Paterson DC, et al: Abduction strength following intramedullary nailing of the femur. J Orthop Trauma  1997; 11:93.

Baixauli et al., 1998. Baixauli Sr F, Baixauli EJ, Sanchez-Alepuz E, et al: Interlocked intramedullary nailing for treatment of open femoral shaft fractures. Clin Orthop Relat Res  1998; 350:67.

Barazi et al., 2001. Barazi M, Memik R, Ogun TC, et al: Ilizarov external fixation for severely comminuted supracondylar and intercondylar fractures of the distal femur. J Bone Joint Surg  2001; 83B:663.

Barquet et al., 1985. Barquet A, Fernandez A, Leon H: Simultaneous ipsilateral trochanteric and femoral shaft fracture. Acta Orthop Scand  1985; 56:36.

Barquet and Mussio, 1983. Barquet A, Mussio A: Fracture dislocation of the femoral head with associated ipsilateral trochanteric and shaft fracture of the femur. Arch Orthop Trauma Surg  1983; 102:61.

Bassett and Goldner, 1962. Bassett III FH, Goldner JL: Fractures involving the distal femoral epiphyseal growth line. South Med J  1962; 55:545.

Behrman et al., 1990. Behrman SW, Fabian TC, Kudsk KA, et al: Improved outcome with femur fractures: early vs. delayed fixation. J Trauma  1990; 30:792.

Bellabarba et al., 2002. Bellabarba C, Ricci WM, Bolhofner BR: Indirect reduction and plating of distal femoral nonunions. J Orthop Trauma  2002; 16:287.

Benirschke et al., 1993. Benirschke SK, Melder I, Henley MB, et al: Closed interlocking nailing of femoral shaft fractures: assessment of technical complications and functional outcomes by comparison of a prospective database with retrospective review. J Orthop Trauma  1993; 7:118.

Benum, 1977. Benum P: The use of bone cement as an adjunct to internal fixation of supracondylar fractures of osteoporotic femurs. Acta Orthop Scand  1977; 48:52.

Bergman et al., 1987. Bergman GD, Winquist RA, Mayo KA, et al: Subtrochanteric fracture of the femur. J Bone Joint Surg  1987; 69A:1032.

Bernstein, 1974. Bernstein SM: Fractures of the femoral shaft and associated ipsilateral fractures of the hip. Orthop Clin North Am  1974; 5:799.

Blake and McBryde, 1975. Blake R, McBryde Jr A: The floating knee: ipsilateral fractures of the femur and tibia. South Med J  1975; 68:13.

Böhler, 1961. Böhler J: Behandlung der kniescheibenbruche: osteosythese, teilexstirpation, extirpation. Dtsch Med Wochenschr  1961; 86:1209.

Bolhofner et al., 1996. Bolhofner BR, Carmen B, Clifford P: The results of open reduction and internal fixation of distal femur fractures using a biologic (indirect) reduction technique. J Orthop Trauma  1996; 10:372.

Bone et al., 1995. Bone LB, Babikian G, Stegemann PM: Femoral canal reaming in the polytrauma patient with chest injury: a clinical perspective. Clin Orthop Relat Res  1995; 318:91.

Bone et al., 1989. Bone LB, Johnson KD, Weige J, et al: Early versus delayed stabilization of femoral fractures: a randomized study. J Bone Joint Surg  1989; 71A:336.

Borgen and Sprague, 1975. Borgen D, Sprague BL: Treatment of distal femoral fractures with early weight-bearing: a preliminary report. Clin Orthop Relat Res  1975; 111:156.

Bosse et al., 1997. Bosse MJ, MacKenzie EJ, Riemer BL, et al: Adult respiratory distress syndrome, pneumonia, and mortality following thoracic injury and a femoral fracture treated either with intramedullary nailing with reaming or with a plate: a comparative study. J Bone Joint Surg  1997; 79A:799.

Bosse et al., 1994. Bosse MJ, Sims S, Kellam JF: External fixation of supracondylar femur fractures in the multiple-trauma patients. Tech Orthop  1994; 9:221.

Böstman, 1990. Böstman OM: Refractures after removal of a condylar plate from the distal third of the femur. J Bone Joint Surg  1990; 72A:1013.

Böstman et al., 1989. Böstman OM, Yarjonen L, Vainionpää S, et al: Incidence of local complications after intramedullary nailing and after plate fixation of femoral shaft fractures. J Trauma  1989; 29:639.

Boyer et al., 1996. Boyer MI, Ribeiro E, Hu R, et al: Small versus large diameter closed-section femoral nails for the treatment of femoral shaft fractures: is there a difference?. J Trauma  1996; 41:279.

Browner, 1984. Browner BD: The Grosse-Kempf locking nail. Contemp Orthop  1984; 8:17.

Brumback et al., 1992. Brumback RJ, Ellison TS, Molligan H, et al: Pudendal nerve palsy complicating intramedullary nailing of the femur. J Bone Joint Surg  1992; 74A:1450.

Brumback et al., 1989. Brumback RJ, Ellison Jr PS, Poka A, et al: Intramedullary nailing of open fractures of the femoral shaft. J Bone Joint Surg  1989; 71A:1324.

Brumback et al., 1992. Brumback RJ, Ellison TS, Poka A, et al: Intramedullary nailing of femoral shaft fractures, III: long-term effects of static interlocking fixation. J Bone Joint Surg  1992; 74A:106.

Brumback et al., 1999. Brumback RJ, Toal Jr TR, Murphy-Zane MS, et al: Immediate weight-bearing after treatment of a comminuted fracture of the femoral shaft with a statically locked intramedullary nail. J Bone Joint Surg  1999; 81:1538.

Brumback and Virkus, 2000. Brumback RJ, Virkus WW: Intramedullary nailing of the femur: reamed versus nonreamed. J Am Acad Orthop Surg  2000; 8:83.

Brumback et al., 1990. Brumback RJ, Wells DJ, Lakatos R, et al: Heterotopic ossification about the hip after intramedullary nailing for fractures of the femur. J Bone Joint Surg  1990; 72A:1067.

Bucholz and Rathjen, 1985. Bucholz R, Rathjen K: Concomitant ipsilateral fractures of the hip and femur treated with interlocking nails. Orthopedics  1985; 8:1402.

Bucholz et al., 1987. Bucholz RW, Ross SE, Lawrence KL: Fatigue fracture of the interlocking nail in the treatment of fractures of the distal part of the femoral shaft. J Bone Joint Surg  1987; 69A:1391.

Butler et al., 1991. Butler MS, Brumback RJ, Ellison TS, et al: Interlocking intramedullary nailing for ipsilateral fractures of the femoral shaft and distal part of the femur. J Bone Joint Surg  1991; 73A:1492.

Carlson et al., 1995. Carlson DA, Dobozi WR, Rabin S: Peroneal nerve palsy and compartment syndrome in bilateral femoral fractures. Clin Orthop Relat Res  1995; 320:115.

Casey and Chapman, 1979. Casey JM, Chapman MW: Ipsilateral concomitant fractures of the hip and femoral shaft. J Bone Joint Surg  1979; 61A:503.

Catagni and Mendlick, 1996. Catagni MA, Mendlick RM: Femoral fractures. Tech Orthop  1996; 11:160.

Chapman and Henley, 1994. Chapman JR, Henley MB: Double plating of distal femur fractures: indications and techniques. Tech Orthop  1994; 9:210.

Chapman, 1980. Chapman MW: Closed intramedullary bone-grafting and nailing of segmental defects of the femur: a report of three cases. J Bone Joint Surg  1980; 62A:1004.

Chapman, 1982. Chapman MW: Closed intramedullary nailing of femoral-shaft fractures: technique and rationale. Contemp Orthop  1982; 4:213.

Charash et al., 1994. Charash WE, Fabian TC, Croce MA: Delayed surgical fixation of femur fractures is a risk factor for pulmonary failure independent of thoracic trauma. J Trauma  1994; 37:667.

Cheng et al., 1985. Cheng JCY, Tse PYT, Chow YYN: The place of the dynamic compression plate in femoral shaft fractures. Injury  1985; 16:529.

Chiron et al., 1974. Chiron HS, Tremoulet J, Casey P, et al: Fractures of the distal third of the femur treated by internal fixation. Clin Orthop Relat Res  1974; 100:160.

Clawson et al., 1971. Clawson DK, Smith RF, Hansen ST: Closed intramedullary nailing of the femur. J Bone Joint Surg  1971; 53A:681.

Codavilla, 1899. Codavilla A: Sur tendinei nella practica ortopedica. Orch Ortop  1899; 16:225.

Connolly et al., 1973. Connolly JF, Dehne E, Lafollette B: Closed reduction and early cast-brace ambulation in the treatment of femoral fractures, II: II:. results in one hundred and forty-three fractures. J Bone Joint Surg  1973; 55A:1581.

Connolly and King, 1973. Connolly JF, King P: Closed reduction and early cast-brace ambulation in the treatment of femoral fractures, I: I:. an in vivo quantitative analysis of immobilization in skeletal traction and a cast-brace. J Bone Joint Surg  1973; 55A:1559.

Cope et al., 1989. Cope AR, McGlone R, Sloan JP: Do we need to cross-match blood in closed fractures of the shaft of the femur?. Injury  1989; 20:27.

Dabezies et al., 1984. Dabezies EJ, D'Ambrosia RD, Shoji H, et al: Fractures of the femoral shaft treated by external fixation with the Wagner device. J Bone Joint Surg  1984; 66A:360.

Danziger et al., 1995. Danziger MB, Caucci D, Zecher SB, et al: Treatment of intercondylar and supracondylar distal femur fractures using the GSH supracondylar nail. Am J Orthop  1995; 24:684.

David et al., 1997. David SM, Harrow ME, Peindl RD, et al: Comparative biomechanical analysis of supracondylar femur fracture fixation: locked intramedullary nail versus 95-degree angled plate. J Orthop Trauma  1997; 11:344.

De Campos et al., 1994. De Campos J, Vangsness T, Merritt PO, et al: Ipsilateral knee injury with femoral fracture: examination under anesthesia and arthroscopic evaluation. Clin Orthop  1994; 300:178.

Dedrick et al., 1986. Dedrick DK, Mackenzie JR, Burney ER: Complications of femoral neck fracture in young adults. J Trauma  1986; 26:932.

Deep et al., 1999. Deep K, Sharp I, Hay SM: Femoral neck fracture complicating intramedullary nailing of femoral shaft. Injury  1999; 30:445.

Delaney and Street, 1953. Delaney WM, Street DM: Fracture of the femoral shaft with fracture of neck of same femur. J Int Coll Surg  1953; 19:303.

DeLee, 1979. DeLee JC: Ipsilateral fracture of the femur and tibia treated in a quadrilateral cast brace. Clin Orthop Relat Res  1979; 142:115.

Dencker, 1965. Dencker H: Shaft fractures of the femur: a comparative study of the results of various methods of treatment in 1003 cases. Acta Chir Scand  1965; 130:173.

Dencker, 1965. Dencker H: Technical problems of medullary nailing: a study of 435 nailed shaft fractures of the femur. Acta Chir Scand  1965; 130:185.

Dennis et al., 2000. Dennis MG, Simon JA, Kummer FJ, et al: Fixation of periprosthetic femoral shaft fractures occurring at the tip of the stem: a biomechanical study of five techniques. J Arthroplasty  2000; 15:523.

Dennis et al., 2001. Dennis MG, Simon JA, Kummer FJ, et al: Fixation of periprosthetic femoral shaft fractures: a biomechanical comparison of two techniques. J Orthop Trauma  2001; 15:177.

DiCicco et al., 2000. DiCicco III JD, Jenkins M, Ostrum RF: Retrograde nailing for subtrochanteric femur fractures. Am J Orthop  2000; 29(suppl 9):4.

Dominguez et al., 1998. Dominguez I, Moro-Rodriguez E, De Pedro Moro JA, et al: Antegrade nailing for fractures of the distal femur. Clin Orthop Relat Res  1998; 350:74.

Duwelius et al., 1997. Duwelius PJ, Huckfeldt R, Mullins RJ, et al: The effects of femoral intramedullary reaming on pulmonary function in a sheep lung model. J Bone Joint Surg  1997; 79A:194.

Eiskjaer et al., 1989. Eiskjaer S, Schmidt SA, Søjbjerg JO, et al: Alternatives in the treatment of ipsilateral fractures of the hip and femur. Orthopedics  1989; 12:397.

Elliott, 1959. Elliott RB: Fractures of the femoral condyles: experiences with a new design femoral condyle blade plate. South Med J  1959; 52:80.

Ender, 1978. Ender HG: Treatment of peritrochanteric and subtrochanteric fractures of the femur with Ender pins.  The hip,  St Louis, Mosby, 1978.

Eriksson and Lovelius, 1979. Eriksson E, Lovelius L: Ender nailing in fractures of the diaphysis of the femur. J Bone Joint Surg  1979; 61A:1175.

Eriksson and Wallin, 1986. Eriksson E, Wallin C: Immediate or delayed Küntscher-rodding of femoral shaft fractures. Orthopedics  1986; 9:201.

Esser et al., 1982. Esser MP, Cloke JH, Hart JAL: Closed Küntscher nailing: a critical review after 20 years. Injury  1982; 13:455.

Farrar and Binns, 1996. Farrar MJ, Binns MS: Percutaneous reduction for closed nailing of femoral shaft fractures. J R Coll Surg Edinb  1996; 41:267.

Fielding et al., 1974. Fielding JW, Cochran GV, Zickel RE: Biochemical characteristics and surgical management of subtrochanteric fractures. Orthop Clin North Am  1974; 5:629.

Fielding and Magliato, 1966. Fielding JW, Magliato HJ: Subtrochanteric fractures. Surg Gynecol Obstet  1966; 122:555.

Firoozbakhsh et al., 1995. Firoozbakhsh K, Behzadi K, DeCoster TA, et al: Mechanics of retrograde nail versus plate fixation for supracondylar femur fractures. J Orthop Trauma  1995; 9:152.

Frankle et al., 1999. Frankle M, Cordey J, Sanders RW, et al: A biomechanical comparison of the antegrade-inserted universal femoral nail with the retrograde-inserted universal tibial nail for use in femoral shaft fractures. Injury  1999; 30(suppl 1):40.

Frederick and Seligson, 1990. Frederick D, Seligson D: Developments in locked femoral nailing. Orthopedics  1990; 13:1141.

Froimson, 1980. Froimson AI: Treatment of comminuted subtrochanteric fractures of the femur. Surg Gynecol Obstet  1980; 131:465.

Gallagher et al., 1980. Gallagher JC, Melton LJ, Riggs BL: Examination of prevalence rates of possible risk factors in a population with a fracture of the proximal femur. Clin Orthop Relat Res  1980; 153:158.

Gallagher et al., 1980. Gallagher JC, Melton LJ, Riggs BL, et al: Epidemiology of fractures of the proximal femur in Rochester, Minn. Clin Orthop Relat Res  1980; 150:163.

Geist and Laros, 1979. Geist RW, Laros GS: Femoral shaft fractures: editorial comment and comparative results. Clin Orthop Relat Res  1979; 138:5.

Gellman et al., 1996. Gellman RE, Paiment GD, Green HD, et al: Treatment of supracondylar femoral fractures with a retrograde intramedullary nail. Clin Orthop Relat Res  1996; 332:90.

Giachino and Cheng, 1980. Giachino AA, Cheng M: Irradiation of the surgeon during pinning of femoral fractures. J Bone Joint Surg  1980; 62B:227.

Giles et al., 1982. Giles JB, DeLee JC, Heckman JD, et al: Supracondylar-intercondylar fractures of the femur treated with a supracondylar plate and lag screw. J Bone Joint Surg  1982; 64A:864.

Gill et al., 1990. Gill SS, Nagi ON, Dhillon MS: Ipsilateral fractures of femoral neck and shaft. J Orthop Trauma  1990; 4:293.

Grana et al., 1984. Grana WA, Gruel J, Wedro B, et al: Complications of ipsilateral femur and tibia fractures. Orthopedics  1984; 7:825.

Green and Trafton, 1991. Green A, Trafton PG: Early complications in the management of open femur fractures: a retrospective study. J Orthop Trauma  1991; 5:51.

Gregory et al., 1996. Gregory P, DiCiccio J, Karpik K, et al: Ipsilateral fractures of the femur and tibia: treatment with retrograde femoral nailing and unreamed tibial nailing. J Orthop Trauma  1996; 10:309.

Gregory and Sanders, 1995. Gregory P, Sanders R: The treatment of supracondylar-intracondylar fractures of the femur using the dynamic condylar screw. Tech Orthop  1995; 9:195.

Grosse, 1981. Grosse A: Manual for osteosynthesis for femoral and tibial shaft fractures,  Kiel, Germany, Howmedica International, 1981.

Grosse et al., 1978. Grosse A, Kempf I, Lafforgued D: Le traitement des fracas, pertes de substance osseuse et pseudoarthroses du fémur et du tibia par l'enclouage verrouillé (a propos de 40 case). Rev Chir Orthop  1978; 64(suppl 2):33.

Grover and Wiss, 1995. Grover J, Wiss DA: A prospective study of fractures of the femoral shaft treated with a static, intramedullary, interlocking nail comparing one versus two distal screws. Orthop Clin North Am  1995; 26:139.

Grundy, 1970. Grundy M: Fractures of the femur in Paget's disease of bone: their etiology and treatment. J Bone Joint Surg  1970; 52B:252.

Gustilo and Anderson, 1976. Gustilo RB, Anderson JT: Prevention of infection in the treatment of one thousand and twenty-five open fractures of long bones. J Bone Joint Surg  1976; 58A:453.

Gynning and Hansen, 1999. Gynning JB, Hansen D: Treatment of distal femoral fractures with intramedullary supracondylar nails in elderly patients. Injury  1999; 30:43.

Hall, 1997. Hall RM: Freehand technique.  Smith & Nephew technique manual for Russell-Taylor Nail System,  Memphis, Tenn, Smith & Nephew, 1997.

Halpenny and Rorabeck, 1984. Halpenny J, Rorabeck CH: Supracondylar fractures of the femur: results of treatment of 61 patients. Can J Surg  1984; 27:606.

Hammacher et al., 1998. Hammacher ER, van Meeteren MC, van der Werken C: Improved results in treatment of femoral shaft fractures with the unreamed femoral nail? A multicenter experience. J Trauma  1998; 45:517.

Hanks et al., 1988. Hanks GA, Foster WC, Cardea JA: Treatment of femoral shaft fractures with the Brooker-Wills interlocking intramedullary nail. Clin Orthop Relat Res  1988; 226:206.

Hansen and Winquist, 1978. Hansen ST, Winquist RA: Closed intramedullary nailing of fractures of the femoral shaft, II: technical considerations. Instr Course Lect  1978; 27:90.

Hansen and Winquist, 1979. Hansen ST, Winquist RA: Closed intramedullary nailing of the femur: Küntscher technique with reaming. Clin Orthop Relat Res  1979; 138:56.

Hansson et al., 1982. Hansson LI, Cedar L, Svensson K, et al: Incidence of fractures of the distal radius and proximal femur: comparison of patients in a mental hospital and the general population. Acta Orthop Scand  1982; 53:721.

Harder et al., 1999. Harder Y, Martinet O, Barraud GE, et al: The mechanics of internal fixation of fractures of the distal femur: a comparison of the condylar screw (CS) with the condylar plate (CP). Injury  1999; 30:A31.

Hardy, 1983. Hardy AE: The treatment of femoral fractures by cast-brace application and early ambulation. J Bone Joint Surg  1983; 65A:56.

Harris, 1983. Harris LJ: Condylocephalic nailing of proximal femoral fractures. Instr Course Lect  1983; 32:292.

Harryman et al., 1986. Harryman II DT, Kurth LA, Davis CM: Ipsilateral femoral neck and shaft fractures: report of two cases using an alternate technique. Clin Orthop Relat Res  1986; 213:183.

Healy and Brooker, 1983. Healy WL, Brooker Jr AF: Distal femoral fractures: comparison of open and closed methods of treatment. Clin Orthop  1983; 174:166.

Helal and Skevis, 1967. Helal B, Skevis X: Unrecognized dislocation of the hip in fractures of the femoral shaft. J Bone Joint Surg  1967; 49B:293.

Hemple, 1982. Hemple D: Interlocking nail osteosynthesis.   In: Hemple D, ed. Intramedullary nailing,  New York: Thieme, Stratton; 1982.

Henry and Booth, 1994. Henry SL, Booth Jr RE: Management of supracondylar fractures above total knee prostheses. Tech Orthop  1994; 9:243.

Henry and Seligson, 1995. Henry SL, Seligson D: Management of supracondylar fractures of the femur with the GHS supracondylar nail: the percutaneous technique. Tech Orthop  1995; 9:189.

Herscovici and Whiteman, 1996. Herscovici D, Whiteman KW: Retrograde nailing of the femur using an intercondylar approach. Clin Orthop Relat Res  1996; 332:98.

Hershman et al., 1990. Hershman EB, Lombardo J, Bergfeld JA: Femoral shaft stress fractures in athletes. Clin Sports Med  1990; 9:111.

Hossam et al., 2001. Hossam E, Morsey A, Eid E: Ipsilateral fracture of the femoral neck and shaft, treated by reconstruction interlocking nail. Arch Orthop Trauma Surg  2001; 121:71.

Hutson, 1996. Hutson Jr JJ: Reconstruction of distal intercondylar femoral fractures with limited internal fixation and Ilizarov tensioned-wire external fixation. Tech Orthop  1996; 11:182.

Hutson and Zych, 2000. Hutson Jr JJ, Zych GA: Treatment of comminuted intraarticular distal femur fractures with limited internal and external tensioned wire fixation. J Orthop Trauma  2000; 14:405.

Iannacone et al., 1994. Iannacone WM, Bennett FS, DeLong Jr WG, et al: Initial experience with treatment of supracondylar femoral fractures using the supracondylar intramedullary nail: a preliminary report. J Orthop Trauma  1994; 8:322.

Ingram and Turner, 1954. Ingram AJ, Turner TC: Bilateral traumatic posterior dislocation of the hip complicated by bilateral fracture of the femoral shaft: report of a case. J Bone Joint Surg  1954; 36A:1249.

Ito et al., 1998. Ito K, Grass R, Zwipp H: Internal fixation of supracondylar femoral fractures: comparative biomechanical performance of the 95-degree blade plate and two retrograde nails. J Orthop Trauma  1998; 12:259.

Jaarsma et al., 2004. Jaarsma RL, Pakvis DFM, Verdonschot N, et al: Rotational malalignment after intramedullary nailing of femoral fractures. J Orthop Trauma  2004; 18:403.

Jakobsen et al., 1985. Jakobsen J, Christensen KS, Rasmussen OS: Patellectomy—a 20-year follow-up. Acta Orthop Scand  1985; 56:430.

Janzing et al., 1998. Janzing HM, Vaes F, Van Damme G, et al: Treatment of distal femoral fractures in the elderly: results with the retrograde intramedullary supracondylar nail. Unfallchir  1998; 24:55.

Jazrawi et al., 2000. Jazrawi LM, Kummer FJ, Simon JA, et al: New technique for treatment of unstable distal femur fractures by locked double-plating: case report and biomechanical evaluation. J Trauma  2000; 48:87.

Johnson et al., 1984. Johnson KD, Johnston DWC, Parker B: Comminuted femoral-shaft fractures: treatment by roller traction, cerclage wires and an intramedullary nail, or an interlocking intramedullary nail. J Bone Joint Surg  1984; 66A:1222.

Kääb et al., 2004. Kääb MJ, Frenk A, Schmeling A, et al: Locked internal fixator: sensitivity of screw/plate stability to the correct insertion angle of the screw. J Orthop Trauma  2004; 18:483.

Kao et al., 1993. Kao JT, Burton D, Cornstock C, et al: Pudendal nerve palsy after femoral intramedullary nailing. J Orthop Trauma  1993; 7:58.

Karlström and Olerud, 1977. Karlström G, Olerud S: Ipsilateral fracture of the femur and tibia. J Bone Joint Surg  1977; 59A:240.

Karpos et al., 1995. Karpos PAG, McFerran MA, Johnson KD: Intramedullary nailing of acute femoral shaft fractures using manual traction without a fracture table. Orthop Trauma  1995; 9:57.

Kellam, 1985. Kellam JF: Early results of the Sunnybrook experience with locked intramedullary nailing. Orthopedics  1985; 8:1387.

Kempf et al., 1976.  Kempf I, Grosse A, Lafforgued L: L'enclouage avec blocage de la rotation on “clou blogue” principles, technique, indications et premiers resultants, Communication a la journee d'hiver, Sofcot, 1976.

Ker et al., 1984. Ker MB, Maempel FZ, Paton DF: Bone cement as an adjunct to medullary nailing in fractures of the distal third of the femur in elderly patients. Injury  1984; 16:102.

Khan et al., 1995. Khan FA, Ikram MS, Badr AA, al-Khawashki H: Femoral neck fracture: a complication of femoral nailing. Injury  1995; 26:319.

Kimbrough, 1961. Kimbrough EE: Concomitant unilateral hip and femoral-shaft fractures—a too frequently unrecognized syndrome: report of five cases. J Bone Joint Surg  1961; 43A:443.

King and Rush, 1981. King KF, Rush J: Closed intramedullary nailing of femoral shaft fractures: a review of one hundred and twelve cases treated by the Küntscher technique. J Bone Joint Surg  1981; 63A:1319.

Klemm and Schellmann, 1972. Klemm K, Schellmann WD: Dynamische und statische Verrigelung des Marknagels. Mschr Unfallheilk  1972; 75:568.

Kohlhaas and Howard, 1982. Kohlhaas AR, Howard R: Radiation protection during interlocking Küntscher nailing. Orthop Rev  1982; 11:83.

Koldenhoven et al., 1997. Koldenhoven GA, Burke JS, Pierron R: Ipsilateral femoral neck and shaft fractures. South Med J  1997; 90:288.

Kolmert et al., 1982. Kolmert L, Persson BM, Romanus B: An experimental study of device for internal fixation of distal femoral fractures. Clin Orthop Relat Res  1982; 171:290.

Koval et al., 1996. Koval KJ, Kummar FJ, Bharan S, et al: Distal femoral fixation: a laboratory comparison of the 95 degrees plate, antegrade and retrograde inserted reamed intramedullary nail. J Orthop Trauma  1996; 10:378.

Krettek et al., 1996. Krettek C, Rudolf J, Schandelmaier P, et al: Unreamed intramedullary nailing of femoral shaft fractures: operative technique and early clinical experience with the standard locking option. Injury  1996; 27:233.

Kröpfl et al., 1997. Kröpfl A, Berger U, Neureiter H, et al: Intramedullary pressure and bone marrow fat intravasation in unreamed femoral nailing. J Trauma  1997; 42:946.

Kröpfl et al., 1995. Kröpfl A, Naglik H, Primavesi C, et al: Unreamed intramedullary nailing of femoral fractures. J Trauma  1995; 38:717.

Krupp et al., 2003. Krupp RJ, Malkani AL, Goodin RA, et al: Optimal entry point for retrograde femoral nailing. J Orthop Trauma  2003; 17:100.

Kumar et al., 2000. Kumar A, Jasani V, Butt MS: Management of distal femoral fractures in elderly patients using retrograde titanium supracondylar nails. Injury  2000; 31:169.

Küntscher, 1940. Küntscher G: Die Marknagelung von Knochenbrüchen: Tierexperimenteller Teil. Klin Wochenschr  1940; 19:6.

Küntscher, 1958. Küntscher G: The Küntscher method of intramedullary fixation. J Bone Joint Surg  1958; 40A:17.

Küntscher, 1965. Küntscher G: Intramedullary surgical technique and its place in orthopaedic surgery: my present concept. J Bone Joint Surg  1965; 47A:809.

Lam, 1964. Lam SJ: The place of delayed internal fixation in the treatment of fractures of the long bones. J Bone Joint Surg  1964; 46B:393.

Lanfranco et al., 1990. Lanfranco G, Alberton G, Gnemmi G, et al: The use of the computer in a long-term review of 315 fractures of the proximal end of the femur. Ital J Orthop Traumatol  1990; 16:103.

Laros, 1979. Laros GS: Supracondylar fractures of the femur: editorial comment and comparative results. Clin Orthop Relat Res  1979; 138:9.

Laros and Spiegel, 1979. Laros GS, Spiegel PG: Rigid internal fixation of fractures. Clin Orthop Relat Res  1979; 138:2.(editorial)

Leggon and Feldman, 2001. Leggon RE, Feldman DD: Retrograde femoral nailing: a focus on the knee. Am J Knee Surg  2001; 14:109.

Less Invasive Stabilization System (LISS), 2000. Less Invasive Stabilization System (LISS): technique guide,  Paoli, Penn, Synthes, 2000.

Leung et al., 1991. Leung KS, Shen WY, So WS, et al: Interlocking intramedullary nailing for supracondylar and intercondylar fractures of the distal part of the femur. J Bone Joint Surg  1991; 73A:332.

Leung et al., 1983. Leung PC, Mak KH, Lee SY: Percutaneous tension band wiring: a new method of internal fixation for mildly displaced patella fracture. J Trauma  1983; 23:62.

Lewert and Modny, 1987. Lewert AH, Modny MT: Transfixion rod in condylar and intercondylar fractures of femur. Orthop Rev  1987; 16:310.

Lhowe and Hansen, 1988. Lhowe DW, Hansen Jr ST: Immediate nailing of open fractures of the femoral shaft. J Bone Joint Surg  1988; 70A:812.

Lindsey and Blair, 1996. Lindsey RW, Blair SR: Closed tibial shaft fractures: which ones benefit from surgical treatment?. J Am Assoc Orthop Surg  1996; 4:35.

Locking Condylar Plate: technique guide, 2001. Locking Condylar Plate: technique guide,  Paoli, Penn, Synthes, 2001.

Lotke and Ecker, 1981. Lotke PA, Ecker ML: Transverse fractures of the patella. Clin Orthop Relat Res  1981; 158:180.

Lottes and Key, 1953. Lottes JO, Key JA: Complications and errors in technic in medullary nailing for fractures of the femur. Clin Orthop Relat Res  1953; 2:38.

Lund et al., 1982. Lund B, Sørensen OH, Lund B, et al: Vitamin D metabolism and osteomalacia in patients with fractures of the proximal femur. Acta Orthop Scand  1982; 53:251.

MacAusland and Eaton, 1963. MacAusland Jr WR, Eaton RG: The management of sepsis following intramedullary fixation for fractures of the femur. J Bone Joint Surg  1963; 45A:1643.

MacNamee et al., 1988. MacNamee PB, Bunker TD, Scott TD: The Herbert screw for osteochondral fractures: brief report. J Bone Joint Surg  1988; 70B:145.

Maffulli et al., 1997. Maffulli N, Yip KM, Cowman JE, et al: Ender nailing for ipsilateral femoral shaft fractures after Austin-Moore hemiarthroplasty. J Trauma  1997; 42:20.

Magerl et al., 1979. Magerl F, Wyss A, Brunner C, et al: Plate osteosynthesis of femoral shaft fractures in adults: a follow-up study. Clin Orthop Relat Res  1979; 138:62.

Malkani and Helfet, 1995. Malkani AL, Helfet DL: Blade-plate fixation of supracondylar femur fractures. Tech Orthop  1995; 9:203.

Mariani and Rand, 1987. Mariani EM, Rand JA: Nonunion of intertrochanteric fractures of the femur following open reduction and internal fixation: results of second attempt to gain union. Clin Orthop Relat Res  1987; 218:81.

Markmiller et al., 2004. Markmiller M, Konrad G, Südkamp N: Femur-LISS and distal femoral nail for fixation of distal femoral fractures: are there differences in outcome and complications. Clin Orthop Relat Res  2004; 426:252.

Marsh et al., 1995. Marsh JL, Smith ST, Do TT: External fixation and limited internal fixation for complex fractures of the tibial plateau. J Bone Joint Surg  1995; 77A:661.

Marti et al., 2001. Marti A, Fankhauser C, Frenk A, et al: Biomechanical evaluation of the less invasive stabilization system for the internal fixation of distal femur fractures. J Orthop Trauma  2001; 15:482.

Martinet et al., 2000. Martinet O, Cordey J, Harder Y, et al: The epidemiology of fractures of the distal femur. Injury  2000; 31:C62.

McClelland et al., 1987. McClelland SJ, Bauman PA, Medley Jr CF, et al: Obturator hip dislocation with ipsilateral fractures of the femoral head and femoral neck: a case report. Clin Orthop Relat Res  1987; 224:164.

McFerran and Johnson, 1992. McFerran MA, Johnson KD: Intramedullary nailing of acute femoral shaft fractures without a fracture table: technique of using a femoral distractor. J Orthop Trauma  1992; 6:271.

McMaster et al., 1980. McMaster WC, Prietto C, Rovner R: Closed treatment of femoral fractures with the fluted Sampson intramedullary rod. Orthop Clin North Am  1980; 11:593.

Meggitt et al., 1981. Meggitt BF, Juett DA, Smith JD: Cast-bracing for fractures of the femoral shaft: a biomechanical and clinical study. J Bone Joint Surg  1981; 63B:12.

Mela et al., 1989. Mela G, Melis GC, Tolu S, et al: The surgical treatment of supra-intercondylar fractures of the femur. Ital J Orthop Traumatol  1989; 15:445.

Merchan et al., 1992. Merchan ECR, Maestu PR, Blanco RP: Blade-plating of closed displaced supracondylar fractures of the distal femur with the AO system. J Trauma  1992; 32:174.

Mize, 1989. Mize RD: Surgical management of complex fractures of the distal femur. Clin Orthop Relat Res  1989; 249:77.

Mize et al., 1982. Mize RD, Bucholz RW, Grogan DP: Surgical treatment of displaced, comminuted fractures of the distal end of the femur: an extensile approach. J Bone Joint Surg  1982; 64A:871.

Moed and Watson, 1995. Moed BR, Watson JT: Retrograde intramedullary nailing without reaming of fractures of the femoral shaft in multiply injured patients. J Bone Joint Surg  1995; 77A:1520.

Moehring, 1988. Moehring HD: Flexible intramedullary fixation of femoral fractures. Clin Orthop Relat Res  1988; 227:190.

Mohr et al., 1995. Mohr VD, Eickhoff U, Haaker R, et al: External fixation of open femoral shaft fractures. J Trauma  1995; 38:648.

Mollica et al., 1986. Mollica Q, Gangitano R, Longo G: Elastic intramedullary nailing in shaft fractures of the femur and tibia. Orthopedics  1986; 9:1065.

Montgomery and Mooney, 1981. Montgomery SP, Mooney V: Femur fractures: treatment with roller traction and early ambulation. Clin Orthop  1981; 156:196.

Mooney et al., 1970. Mooney V, Nickel VL, Harvey Jr JP, et al: Cast-brace treatment for fractures of the distal part of the femur: a prospective controlled study of one hundred and fifty patients. J Bone Joint Surg  1970; 52A:1563.

Moore et al., 1987. Moore TJ, Watson T, Green SA, et al: Complications of surgically treated supracondylar fractures of the femur. J Trauma  1987; 27:402.

Muller et al., 1984. Muller KH, Strosche H, Scheuer I: Plate osteosynthesis in posttraumatic deformities of the femoral shaft. Arch Orthop Trauma Surg  1984; 103:303.

Murti and Ring, 1983. Murti GS, Ring PA: Closed medullary nailing of fractures of the femoral shaft using the AO method. Injury  1983; 14:318.

Nasr et al., 2000. Nasr AM, McLeod I, Sabboubeh A, et al: Conservative or surgical management of distal femoral fractures: a retrospective study with a minimum 5-year follow-up. Acta Orthop Belg  2000; 66:477.

Neer et al., 1967. Neer II CS, Grantham SA, Shelton ML: Supracondylar fracture of the adult femur: a study of one hundred and ten cases. J Bone Joint Surg  1967; 49A:591.

Nicoll, 1964. Nicoll EA: Fractures of the tibial shaft: a survey of 705 cases. J Bone Joint Surg  1964; 46B:373.

Norbeck et al., 1990. Norbeck Jr DE, Asselmeier M, Pinzur MS: Torsional malunion of a femur fracture: diagnosis and treatment. Orthop Rev  1990; 19:625.

Norris et al., 2001. Norris BL, Patton WC, Rudd Jr JN, et al: Pulmonary dysfunction in patients with femoral shaft fracture treated with intramedullary nailing. J Bone Joint Surg  2001; 83A:1162.

Noumi et al., 2005. Noumi T, Yokoyama K, Ohtsuka H, et al: Intramedullary nailing for open fractures of the femoral shaft: evaluation of contributing factors on deep infection and nonunion using multivariate analysis. Injury Int J Care Injured  2005; 36:1085.

Nowotarski et al., 2000. Nowotarski PJ, Turen CH, Brumback RJ, et al: Conversion of external fixation to intramedullary nailing for fractures of the shaft of the femur in multiply injured patients. J Bone Joint Surg  2000; 82A:781.

O'Beirne et al., 1986. O'Beirne J, O'Connell RJ, White JM, et al: Fractures of the femur treated by femoral plating using the anterolateral approach. Injury  1986; 17:387.

O'Brien et al., 1991. O'Brien PJ, Meek RN, Powell JN, et al: Primary intramedullary nailing of open femoral shaft fractures. J Trauma  1991; 31:113.

Olerud, 1972. Olerud S: Operative treatment of supracondylar-condylar fractures of the femur: technique and results in fifteen cases. J Bone Joint Surg  1972; 54A:1015.

Omer et al., 2002. Omer Jr GE, Moll JH, Bacon WL: Combined fractures of the femur and tibia in a single extremity: analytical study of cases at Brooke General Hospital from 1961 to 1967. J Trauma  2002; 8:1026.

Ostermann et al., 1994. Ostermann PAW, Neumann K, Ekkenkamp A, et al: Results of unicondylar fractures of the femur. J Orthop Trauma  1994; 8:142.

Ostrum et al., 2000. Ostrum RF, Agarwal A, Lakatos R, et al: Prospective comparison of retrograde and antegrade femoral intramedullary nailing. J Orthop Trauma  2000; 14:496.

Ostrum and Geel, 1995. Ostrum RF, Geel C: Indirect reduction and internal fixation of supracondylar femur fractures without bone graft. J Orthop Trauma  1995; 9:278.

Pankovich, 1981. Pankovich AM: Adjunctive fixation in flexible intramedullary nailing of femoral fractures: a study of twenty-six cases. Clin Orthop Relat Res  1981; 157:301.

Pankovich et al., 1979. Pankovich AM, Goldflies ML, Pearson RL: Closed Ender nailing of femoral-shaft fractures. J Bone Joint Surg  1979; 61A:222.

Papadokostakis et al., 2005. Papadokostakis G, Papakostidis C, Dimitriou R, et al: The role and efficacy of retrograding nailing for the treatment of diaphyseal and distal femoral fractures: a systematic review of the literature. Injury Int J Care Injured  2005; 36:813.

Papagiannopoulos and Clement, 1987. Papagiannopoulos G, Clement DA: Treatment of fractures of the distal third of the femur: a prospective trial of the Derby intramedullary nail. J Bone Joint Surg  1987; 69B:67.

Pape et al., 1992. Pape HC, Dwenger A, Regel G, et al: Pulmonary damage after intramedullary femoral nailing in traumatized sheep—is there an effect from different nailing methods?. J Trauma  1992; 33:574.

Pape et al., 2002. Pape HC, Hildebrand F, Pertschy S, et al: Changes in the management of femoral shaft fractures in polytrauma patients: from early total care to damage control orthopedic surgery. J Trauma  2002; 53:452.

Pape et al., 1993. Pape HC, Regel G, Dwenger A, et al: Influences of different methods of intramedullary femoral nailing on lung function in patients with multiple trauma. J Trauma  1993; 35:709.

Parrish and Jones, 1964. Parrish TF, Jones JR: Fracture of the femur following prosthetic arthroplasty of the hip: report of nine cases. J Bone Joint Surg  1964; 46A:241.

Patterson et al., 1993. Patterson BM, Benirschke SK, Mayo KA, et al: Comminuted, intraarticular fractures of the distal femur: a study of outcome. J Orthop Trauma  1993; 7:170.(abstract)

Pearlman et al., 1981. Pearlman HS, Patel M, Sclafani SJ, et al: Fractures of the femoral shaft: treatment with solitary plate compression. Orthop Rev  1981; 10:109.

Peljovich and Patterson, 1998. Peljovich AE, Patterson BM: Ipsilateral femoral neck and shaft fractures. J Am Acad Orthop Surg  1998; 6:106.

Pollack et al., 1997. Pollack AN, Battistella F, Pettey J, et al: Reamed femoral nailing in patients with multiple injuries: adverse effects of tourniquet use. Clin Orthop Relat Res  1997; 339:41.

Pratt et al., 1987. Pratt DJ, Papagiannopoulos G, Rees PH, et al: The effects of the medullary reaming on the torsional strength of the femur. Injury  1987; 18:177.

Pritchett, 1984. Pritchett JW: Supracondylar fractures of the femur. Clin Orthop Relat Res  1984; 184:173.

Pryor and Doran, 1988. Pryor GA, Doran A: Fractures of the distal femur: the role of the Zickle supracondylar fixation device. Injury  1988; 19:410.

Randelli et al., 1999. Randelli P, Landi S, Fanton F, et al: Treatment of ipsilateral femoral neck and shaft fractures with the Russell-Taylor reconstructive nail. Orthopedics  1999; 22:673.

Rascher et al., 1972. Rascher JJ, Nahigian SH, Macys JR, et al: Closed nailing of femoral-shaft fractures. J Bone Joint Surg  1972; 54A:534.

Reynders and Broos, 1998. Reynders P, Broos P: Unreamed intramedullary nailing of acute femoral shaft fractures using a traction device without fracture table. Acta Orthop Belg  1998; 64:175.

Rhinelander and Nelson, 1973. Rhinelander FW, Nelson CL: The vascular and histologic response of diaphyseal cortex to experimental medullary nailing and reaming. J Bone Joint Surg  1973; 55A:1767.

Ricci et al., 2001. Ricci WM, Bellabarba C, Evanoff B, et al: Retrograde versus antegrade nailing of femoral shaft fractures. J Orthop Trauma  2001; 15:161.

Ricci et al., 2001. Ricci WM, Bellabara C, Lewis R, et al: Angular malalignment after intramedullary nailing of femoral shaft fractures. J Orthop Trauma  2001; 15:90.

Ricci et al., 2005. Ricci WM, Devinney S, Haidukewych G, et al: Trochanteric nail insertion for the treatment of femoral shaft fractures. J Orthop Trauma  2005; 19:511.

Ricci et al., 2006. Ricci WM, Loftus T, Cox C, et al: Locked plates combined with minimally invasive insertion technique for the treatment of periprosthetic supracondylar femur fractures above a total knee arthroplasty. J Orthop Trauma  2006; 20:190.

Ricci et al., 2006. Ricci WM, Schwappach J, Tucker M, et al: Trochanteric versus piriformis entry portal for the treatment of femoral shaft fractures. J Orthop Trauma  2006; 20:663.

Richards et al., 1984. Richards RR, Waddell JP, Sullivan TR, et al: Infra-isthmal fractures of the femur: a review of 82 cases. J Trauma  1984; 24:735.

Riemer et al., 1994. Riemer BL, Foglesong ME, Miranda MA: Femoral plating. Orthop Clin North Am  1994; 25:625.

Riggins et al., 1972. Riggins RS, Garrick JG, Lipscomb PR: Supracondylar fractures of the femur: a survey of treatment. Clin Orthop Relat Res  1972; 82:32.

Rinaldi and Marenghi, 1984. Rinaldi E, Marenghi P: Plate and screw fixation by autogenous corticocancellous grafts in comminuted fractures of the femur. Ital J Orthop Traumatol  1984; 10:349.

Rosenberg, 1964. Rosenberg NJ: Osteochondral fractures of the lateral femoral condyle. J Bone Joint Surg  1964; 46A:1013.

Rüedi and Lüscher, 1979. Rüedi TP, Lüscher JN: Results after internal fixation of comminuted fractures of the femoral shaft with DC plates. Clin Orthop Relat Res  1979; 138:74.

Russell et al., 2002. Russell GV, Kregor PJ, Jarrett CA, Zlowodzki M: Complicated femoral shaft fractures. Orthop Clin North Am  2002; 33:127.

Russell and Smith, 1999. Russell Jr GV, Smith DG: Minimally invasive treatment of distal femur fractures: report of a technique. J Trauma  1999; 47:799.

Sage, 1968. Sage FP: The second decade of experience with the Küntscher medullary nail in the femur. Clin Orthop Relat Res  1968; 60:77.

Salminen et al., 2000. Salminen ST, Philajamaki HK, Avikainen VJ, et al: Population based epidemiologic and morphologic study of femoral shaft fractures. Clin Orthop Relat Res  2000; 372:241.

Sanders et al., 1993. Sanders R, Koval KJ, DiPasquale T, et al: Retrograde reamed femoral nailing. J Orthop Trauma  1993; 7:293.

Sanders et al., 1989. Sanders R, Regazzoni P, Rüedi TP: Treatment of supracondylar-intracondylar fractures of the femur using the dynamic condylar screw. J Orthop Trauma  1989; 3:214.

Sarmiento, 1972. Sarmiento A: Functional bracing of tibial and femoral shaft fractures. Clin Orthop Relat Res  1972; 81:2.

Sarmiento, 1973. Sarmiento A: Unstable intertrochanteric fractures of the femur. Clin Orthop Relat Res  1973; 92:77.

Schandelmaier et al., 1995. Schandelmaier P, Krettek C, Rudolf J, et al: Outcome of tibial shaft fractures with severe soft tissue injury treated by unreamed nailing versus external fixation. J Trauma  1995; 39:707.

Schatzker, 1980. Schatzker J: Open intramedullary nailing of the femur. Orthop Clin North Am  1980; 11:623.

Schatzker et al., 2002. Schatzker J, Home G, Waddell J: The Toronto experience with the supracondylar fracture of the femur: 1966–72. Injury  2002; 6:113.

Schatzker and Lambert, 1979. Schatzker J, Lambert DC: Supracondylar fractures of the femur. Clin Orthop  1979; 138:77.

Schatzker et al., 1989. Schatzker J, Mahomed N, Schiffman K, et al: Dynamic condylar screw: a new device: a preliminary report. J Orthop Trauma  1989; 3:124.

Schauwecker, 1974. Schauwecker F: The practice of osteosynthesis,  Stuttgart, Georg Thieme Verlag, 1974.

Schemitsch et al., 1997. Schemitsch EH, Jain R, Turchin DC, et al: Pulmonary effects of fixation of a fracture with a plate compared with intramedullary nailing: a canine model of fat embolism and fracture fixation. J Bone Joint Surg  1997; 79A:984.

Schmidt and Kyle, 2002. Schmidt AH, Kyle RF: Periprosthetic fractures of the femur. Orthop Clin North Am  2002; 33:143.

Schneider, 1973. Schneider M: Intramedullary nailing of long-bone fractures—current concepts, III: closed intramedullary nailing of shaft fractures using Küntscher's method. Instr Course Lect  1973; 22:188.

Scott et al., 1975. Scott RD, Turner RH, Leitzes SM, et al: Femoral fractures in conjunction with total hip replacement. J Bone Joint Surg  1975; 57A:494.

Scudese, 1971. Scudese VA: Femoral shaft fractures: percutaneous multiple pin fixation, thigh cylinder plaster cast and early weight-bearing. Clin Orthop  1971; 77:164.

Seinsheimer, 1978. Seinsheimer F: Subtrochanteric fractures of the femur. J Bone Joint Surg  1978; 60A:300.

Seinsheimer, 1980. Seinsheimer III F: Fractures of the distal femur. Clin Orthop  1980; 153:169.

Seligson et al..  Seligson D, Henry SL, Green SA: Intramedullary supracondylar nail: technique manual, Memphis, Tenn, Smith & Nephew.

Seligson et al., 2001. Seligson D, Mulier T, Keirsbilck S, et al: Plating of femoral shaft fractures: a review of 15 cases. Acta Orthop Belg  2001; 67:24.

Shelbourne and Brueckmann, 1982. Shelbourne KD, Brueckmann FR: Rush-pin fixation of supracondylar and intercondylar fractures of the femur. J Bone Joint Surg  1982; 64A:161.

Shelton et al., 1974. Shelton ML, Grantham SA, Neer II CS, et al: A new fixation device for supracondylar and low femoral shaft fractures. J Trauma  1974; 14:821.

Shelton et al., 1971. Shelton ML, Neer II CS, Grantham SA: Occult knee ligament ruptures associated with fractures. J Trauma  1971; 11:853.

Siliski et al., 1989. Siliski JM, Mahring M, Hofer HP: Supracondylar-intercondylar fractures of the femur. J Bone Joint Surg  1989; 71A:95.

Sims, 2002. Sims SH: Subtrochanteric femoral fractures. Orthop Clin N Am  2002; 33:113.

Sirkin et al., 1996. Sirkin MS, Behrens F, McCracken K, et al: Femoral nailing without a fracture table. Clin Orthop Relat Res  1996; 332:119.

Slatis et al., 1971. Slatis P, Ryöppy S, Huittinen V: AO osteosynthesis of fractures of the distal third of the femur. Acta Orthop Scand  1971; 42:162.

Smith, 1951.  Smith H (ed): Introduction (medullary fixation of the femur symposium) . Instr Course Lect  1951; 8:1.

Smith, 1953. Smith H: Medullary fixation of the femur. Radiology  1953; 61:194.

Soto-Hall and McCloy, 1953. Soto-Hall R, McCloy NP: Cause and treatment of angulation of femoral intramedullary nails. Clin Orthop  1953; 2:66.

Spray, 1983. Spray P: Treatment of fractures of the femoral shaft with Rush pins. Contemp Orthop  1983; 6:39.

Sprenger, 1983. Sprenger TR: Fractures of the shaft of the femur treated with a single AO plate. South Med J  1983; 76:471.

Starr et al., 1999. Starr AJ, Jones AL, Reinert CM: The “swashbuckler”: a modified approach for fractures of the distal femur. J Orthop Trauma  1999; 13:138.

Stewart et al., 1966. Stewart MJ, Sisk TD, Wallace SL: Fractures of the distal third of the femur: a comparison of methods of treatment. J Bone Joint Surg  1966; 48A:784.

Stewart and Wallace, 1958. Stewart MJ, Wallace SL: Fracture of the distal third of the femur. J Bone Joint Surg  1958; 40A:235.

Street, 1951. Street D: One hundred fractures of the femur treated by means of the diamond-shaped medullary nail. J Bone Joint Surg  1951; 33A:659.

Swiontkowski, 1987. Swiontkowski MF: Ipsilateral femoral shaft and hip fractures. Orthop Clin North Am  1987; 18:73.

Taylor, 1994. Taylor JC: Treatment of distal femoral fractures with the Russell-Taylor nail. Tech Orthop  1994; 9:225.

The Canadian Orthopedic Trauma Society, 2006. The Canadian Orthopedic Trauma Society : Reamed versus unreamed intramedullary nailing of the femur: comparison of the rate of ARDS in multiple injured patients. J Orthop Trauma  2006; 20:384.

Thomas and Meggitt, 1981. Thomas TL, Meggitt BF: A comparative study of methods for treating fractures of the distal half of the femur. J Bone Joint Surg  1981; 63B:3.

Thompson et al., 1985. Thompson F, O'Beirne J, Gallagher J, et al: Fractures of the femoral shaft treated by plating. Injury  1985; 16:535.

Thorensen et al., 1985. Thorensen BO, Alho A, Ekel A, et al: Interlocking intramedullary nailing in femoral shaft fractures: a report of forty-eight cases. J Bone Joint Surg  1985; 67A:1313.

Titanium Elastic Nail System: technique guide, 1998. Titanium Elastic Nail System: technique guide,  Paoli, Penn, Synthes, 1998.

Toolan et al., 1995. Toolan BC, Koval KJ, Kummer FJ, et al: Effects of supine positioning and fracture post placement on the perineal countertraction force in awake volunteers. J Orthop Trauma  1995; 9:164.

Tornetta and Tiburzi, 1994. Tornetta III P, Tiburzi D: Anterograde interlocked nailing of distal femoral fractures after gunshot wounds. J Orthop Trauma  1994; 8:220.

Tornetta and Tiburzi, 1997. Tornetta III P, Tiburzi D: The treatment of femoral shaft fractures using intramedullary interlocked nails with and without intramedullary reaming: a preliminary report. J Orthop Trauma  1997; 11:89.

van der Made et al., 1996. van der Made WJ, Smit EJ, van Luyt PA, et al: Intramedullary femoral osteosynthesis: an additional cause of ARDS in multiply injured patients?. Injury  1996; 27:391.

Veith and Hansen, 1982. Veith RG, Hansen Jr ST: Closed intramedullary nailing of femoral-shaft fractures following reaming: technique and rationale. Contemp Orthop  1982; 4:41.

Veith et al., 1984. Veith RG, Winquist RA, Hansen Jr ST: Ipsilateral fractures of the femur and tibia: a report of fifty-seven consecutive cases. J Bone Joint Surg  1984; 66A:991.

Waldrop et al., 1988. Waldrop JI, Macey TI, Trettin JC, et al: Fractures of the posterolateral tibial plateau. Am J Sports Med  1988; 16:492.

Walling et al., 1982. Walling AK, Seradge H, Spiegel PG: Injuries to the knee ligaments with fractures of the femur. J Bone Joint Surg  1982; 64A:1324.

Wardlaw et al., 1981. Wardlaw D, McLauchlan J, Pratt DJ, et al: A biomechanical study of cast-brace treatment of femoral shaft fractures. J Bone Joint Surg  1981; 63B:7.

Watson et al., 1964. Watson HK, Campbell Jr RD, Wade PA: Classification, treatment, and complications of the adult subtrochanteric fracture. J Trauma  1964; 4:457.

Wenda et al., 1993. Wenda K, Runkel M, Degreif J, et al: Pathogenesis and clinical relevance of bone marrow embolism in medullary nailing demonstrated by intraoperative echocardiography. Injury  1993; 24:73.

White et al., 1986. White GM, Healy WL, Brumbeck RJ, et al: The treatment of fractures of the femoral shaft with the Brooker-Willis distal locking intramedullary nail. J Bone Joint Surg  1986; 68A:865.

Whittaker et al., 1982. Whittaker RP, Heppenstall B, Menkowitz E, et al: Comparison of open vs closed rodding femurs utilizing a Sampson rod. J Trauma  1982; 22:461.

Whittle et al., 1994/1995. Whittle APW, Russell TA, Taylor JC, et al: Treatment of supracondylar and intercondylar fractures of the femur with antegrade interlocking intramedullary nails. Orthop Trans  1994/1995; 18:10323.(abstract).

Wickstrom and Corban, 1967. Wickstrom J, Corban MS: Intramedullary fixation for fractures of the femoral shaft: a study of complications in 298 operations. J Trauma  1967; 7:551.

Wieck et al., 1990.  Wieck JA, Russell TA, Taylor JC, et al: Results of treatment of 100 femoral fractures with the 10 and 11 millimeter Russell-Taylor delta femoral intramedullary nails. Paper presented at the Tennessee Orthopaedic Society, Nashville, 1990.

Williams et al., 1995. Williams MM, Askins V, Hinkes EW, et al: Primary reamed intramedullary nailing of open femoral shaft fractures. Clin Orthop Relat Res  1995; 318:182.

Winquist and Hansen, 1980. Winquist RA, Hansen Jr ST: Comminuted fractures of the femoral shaft treated by intramedullary nailing. Orthop Clin North Am  1980; 11:633.

Winters and Dabezies, 1984. Winters C, Dabezies EJ: Supracondylar fractures of the femur. Orthopedics  1984; 7:1051.

Wiss et al., 1990. Wiss DA, Brien WW, Stetson WB: Interlocked nailing for treatment of segmental fractures of the femur. J Bone Joint Surg  1990; 72A:724.

Wiss et al., 1986. Wiss DA, Fleming CA, Matta JM, et al: Comminuted and rotationally unstable fractures of the femur treated with an interlocking nail. Clin Orthop Relat Res  1986; 212:35.

Wood et al., 1992. Wood EG, Savoie FH, Vander Griend RA: Treatment of ipsilateral fractures of the distal femur and femoral shaft. J Orthop Trauma  1992; 111:232.

Yang et al., 1998. Yang KH, Han DY, Park HW, et al: Fracture of the ipsilateral neck of the femur in shaft nailing: the role of CT in diagnosis. J Bone Joint Surg  1998; 80:673.

Yang et al., 1990. Yang R, Liu H, Lui T: Supracondylar fractures of the femur. J Trauma  1990; 30:315.

Zehntner et al., 1992. Zehntner MK, Marchesi DG, Burch H, et al: Alignment of supracondylar/intercondylar fractures of the femur after internal fixation by AO/ASIF technique. J Orthop Trauma  1992; 6:318.

Zettas and Zettas, 1981. Zettas JP, Zettas P: Ipsilateral fractures of the femoral neck and shaft. Clin Orthop Relat Res  1981; 160:63.

Zickel, 1967. Zickel RE: A new fixation device for subtrochanteric fractures of the femur: a preliminary report. Clin Orthop Relat Res  1967; 54:115.

Zickel, 1976. Zickel RE: An intramedullary fixation device for the proximal part of the femur: nine year's experience. J Bone Joint Surg  1976; 58A:866.

Zickel, 1980. Zickel RE: Fractures of the adult femur excluding the femoral head and neck: a review and evaluation of current therapy. Clin Orthop Relat Res  1980; 147:93.

Zickel, 1994. Zickel RE: Zickel supracondylar nail. Tech Orthop  1994; 9:217.

Zickel et al., 1978. Zickel RE, Bercik MJ, Licciardi LM: A continuing study on the use of the Zickel intramedullary appliance in fractures and lesions of the proximal femur.  The hip,  St Louis, Mosby, 1978.

Zickel et al., 1986. Zickel RE, Hobeika P, Robbins DS: Zickel supracondylar nails for fractures of the distal end of the femur. Clin Orthop Relat Res  1986; 212:77.

Zickel and Mouradian, 1976. Zickel RE, Mouradian WH: Intramedullary fixation of pathological fractures and lesions of the subtrochanteric region of the femur. J Bone Joint Surg  1976; 58A:1061.

Zimmerman, 1979. Zimmerman AJ: Intraarticular fractures of the distal femur. Orthop Clin North Am  1979; 10:75.

Zlowodzki et al., 2004. Zlowodzki M, Williamson S, Cole P, et al: Biomechanical evaluation of the less invasive stabilization system, angled blade plate, and retrograde intramedullary nail for the internal fixation of distal femur fractures. J Orthop Trauma  2004; 18:494.