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Chapter 12 – Hypothalamic Syndromes

Glenn D. Braunstein

  Hypothalamic Disorders: Pathophysiologic Principles
  Manifestations of Hypothalamic Disease
  Disorders of Water Metabolism
  Disorders of Appetite Control and Caloric Balance
  Sleep/Wake Cycle and Circadian Abnormalities
  Abnormalities of Emotional Expression or Behavior
  Disordered Control of Anterior Pituitary Function

  Specific Hypothalamic Disorders
  Prader-Willi Syndrome
  Bardet-Biedl and Related Syndromes
  Septo-Optic Pituitary Dysplasia
  Hyperphagic Short Stature (Psychosocial Dwarfism)
  Hypothalamic Hamartoma
  Suprasellar Arachnoid Cyst
  Infiltrative Disorders
  Hypothalamic Dysfunction after Brain Irradiation
  Traumatic Brain Injury

The hypothalamus houses multiple nuclei along with afferent and efferent nerve fibers that connect the hypothalamus to the various portions of the brain and brainstem. It is divided into four regions: from anterior to posterior, the preoptic, supraoptic, tuberal, and mamillary regions; and three zones: laterally …