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REFERENCES

1. Miles MA: The discovery of Chagas disease: progress and prejudice. Infect Dis Clin North Am  2004; 18:247-260.

2. Miles MA: Chagas disease and chagasic megacolon.   In: Kamm MA, Lennard-Jones JE, ed. Constipation,  Petersfield: Wrightson Biomedical; 1994:205-210.

3. Gaunt M, Miles MA: The ecotopes and evolution of triatomine bugs (Triatominae) and their associated trypanosomes. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz  2000; 95:557-565.

4. Miles MA, Feliciangeli MD, Arias AR: American trypanosomiasis (Chagas disease) and the role of molecular epidemiology in guiding control strategies. BMJ  2003; 326:1444-1448.

5.  In: Maudlin I, Holmes P, Miles MA, ed. The Trypanosomiases,  London: CABI; 2004.

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7. Hoare CA: The Trypanosomes of Mammals,  Oxford, Blackwell, 1972.

8. Torrico F, Vega CA, Suarez E, et al: Are maternal re-infections with Trypanosoma cruzi associated with high morbidity and mortality of congenital Chagas disease?. Trop Med Int Health  2006; 11:628-635.

9. WHO : Control of Chagas Disease,  Geneva, World Health Organization, 2002. WHO Technical Report Series 905.

10. Pan American Health Organization : Chagas Disease and the Nervous System,  Washington, DC, PAHO, 1994. Scientific Publication No. 547.

11. Miles MA: New World trypanosomiasis.   In: Cox FEG, Kreier JP, Wakelin D, ed. Topley, Wilson's Microbiology and Microbial Infections: Parasitology,  London: Arnold; 2005:376-398.

12. Tarleton RL, Zhang L, Downs MO: ‘Autoimmune’ rejection of neonatal heart transplants in experimental Chagas disease is a parasite-specific response to infected host tissue. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA  1997; 94:3932-3937.

13. Cheesborough M: District Laboratory Practice in Tropical Countries,  Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1999. Part 1

14. Miles MA: Culturing and biological cloning of Trypanosoma cruzi.   In: Hyde JE, ed. Protocols in Molecular Parasitology,  Totowa: Humana Press; 1993:15-28.

15. Castro JA, de Mecca MM, Bartel LC: Toxic side-effects of drugs used to treat Chagas disease (American trypanosomiasis). Hum Exp Toxicol  2006; 25:471-479.

16. Estani SS, Segura EL, Ruiz AM, et al: Efficacy of chemotherapy with benznidazole in children in the indeterminate phase Chagas disease. Am J Trop Med Hyg  1998; 59:526-529.

17. Raia AA: Manifesta ç oes Digestivas da Moléstia de Chagas,  São Paulo, Sarvier Brasil, 1983.

18. Lent H, Wygodzinsky P: Revision of the Triatominae (Hemiptera, Reduviidae), and their significance as vectors of Chagas disease. Bull Am Mus Nat Hist  1979; 163:123-520.

19. Dujardin JP, Schofield CJ: Triatominae: Systematics, morphology and population Biology.   In: Maudlin I, Holmes P, Miles MA, ed. The Trypanosomiases,  London: CABI; 2004:181-201.

20. Valente VC, Valente SAS, Noireau F, et al: Chagas disease in the Amazon Basin: association of Panstrongylus geniculatus (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) with domestic pigs. J Med Entomol  1998; 35:99-103.

21. Miles MA, Souza A, Povoa M, et al: Isozymic heterogeneity of Trypanosoma cruzi in the first autochthonous patients with Chagas disease in Amazonian Brazil. Nature  1978; 272:819-821.

22. Machado CA, Ayala FJ: Nucleotide sequences provide evidence of genetic exchange among distantly related lineages of Trypanosoma cruzi. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA  2001; 98:7396-7401.

23. Gaunt MW, Yeo M, Frame IA, et al: Mechanism of genetic exchange in American trypanosomes. Nature  2003; 421:936-939.

24. Yeo M, Acosta N, Llewellyn M, et al: Origins of Chagas disease: Didelphis species are natural hosts of Trypanosoma cruzi I and armadillos hosts of Trypanosoma cruzi II, including hybrids. Int J Parasitol  2005; 35:225-233.

25. Freitas JM, Lages-Silva E, Crema E, et al: Real time PCR strategy for the identification of major lineages of Trypanosoma cruzi directly in chronically infected human tissues. Int J Parasit  2005; 35:411-417.

26. Moraes-Souza H, Bordin JO, Langhi D: Control of blood transfusion transmission of American Trypanosomiasis.   In: Maudlin I, Holmes P, Miles MA, ed. The Trypanosomiases,  London: CABI; 2004:479-490.

27. Kali J, Cunha-Neto E: Autoimmunity in Chagas disease cardiomyopathy: fulfilling the criteria at last. Parasitol Today  1996; 12:396-399.

28. Dias JCP: Control of Chagas disease in Brazil. Parasitol Today  1987; 3:336-341.

29. Noireau F, Cortez MG, Monteiro FA, et al: Can wild Triatoma infestans foci in Bolivia jeopardize Chagas disease control efforts?. Trends Parasitol  2005; 21:7-10.

30. Schofield CJ, Dias JCP: The southern cone initiative against Chagas disease. Adv Parasitol  1998; 2:2-22.

31. Schofield CJ, Jannin J, Salvatella R: The future of Chagas disease control. Trends Parasitol  2006; 22:583-588.

32. El-Sayed , Myler NM, Bartolomeu DC, et al: The genome sequence of Trypanosoma cruzi, etiologic agent of Chagas disease. Science  2005; 309:409-415.

33. Urrea DA, Carranza JC, Cuba CA, et al: Molecular characterization of Trypanosoma rangeli strains isolated from Rhodnius ecuadoriensis in Peru, R. colombiensis in Colombia and R. pallescens in Panama supports a co-evolutionary association between parasites and vectors. Infect Genet Evol  2005; 5:123-129.