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SECTION 6 – Oncology

Chapter 47 – Uveal melanoma

Zélia MS Corręa,
J William Harbour

Clinical background

Uveal melanoma is a malignant neoplasm that arises from neuroectodermal melanocytes within the choroid, ciliary body, or iris, and it is the most common primary malignant intraocular neoplasm.[1,2] Uveal melanoma can cause flashes, floaters, and other visual symptoms, but it is most often asymptomatic and discovered on routine eye examination (Box 47.1). These tumors can range from minimally to darkly pigmented, usually grow slowly, and invade through the sclera to involve the orbit (Figure 47.1). Uveal melanomas have a strong tendency to metastasize hematogenously to the liver and other organs. Despite advances in diagnosis and treatment in recent decades, the mortality rates have not exhibited a commensurate improvement.[3] Uveal melanoma occurs in about 4–5 per million individuals in the USA, and it is much more common in Caucasians than in individuals of African and Asian descent.[4]Men are at …