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SECTION 2 – Dry eye

Chapter 14 – The lacrimal gland and dry-eye disease

Darlene A Dartt


A consensus from the recent International Dry Eye Workshop revised the definition of dry-eye disease to: “Dry eye is a multifactorial disease of the tears and ocular surface that results in symptoms of discomfort, visual disturbance, and tear film instability with potential damage to the ocular surface. It is accompanied by increased osmolarity of the tear film and inflammation of the ocular surface.”[1] The tear film, which is altered in dry-eye disease, is produced by multiple types of ocular surface epithelia and the ocular adnexa (Figure 14.1). The meibomian glands that line the eyelid secrete the outer lipid layer of the tear film. The lacrimal gland, accessory lacrimal glands, conjunctival epithelium, and corneal epithelium secrete the aqueous component. The conjunctival goblet cells and stratified squamous cells of the conjunctiva and cornea secrete the mucous component. The lacrimal glands, lids, …