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Soluble mediators of uveitis and cell adhesion molecules

Cytokines

The most well-characterized group of soluble mediators of inflammation in uveitis are cytokines, chemical mediators involved in the recruitment of ocular immune cells, augmentation of the immune response, and tissue damage in some cases. A number of soluble inflammatory mediators of uveitis have been characterized in both peripheral blood serum samples and ocular fluids (i.e., aqueous and vitreous), as well as in experimental models of uveitis.

In EAU, the Th1-mediated cellular immune response and its associated cytokines predominate. Foxman et al observed an elevation of Th1-associated cytokines and chemokines, including IL-1α, IL-1, IL-1R antagonist, IL-6, TNF-α, and IFN-γ in the EAU model.[55] IL-1 and TNF-α receptor-deficient mice show decreased inflammation in an immune complex model of uveitis, suggesting a role for these cytokines in this animal model of uveitis[56] (Figure 79.4). Antagonists of cytokines and chemokines …