References4.. Azuma N, Ishikawa K, Hama Y, et al: Early vitreous surgery for aggressive posterior retinopathy of prematurity. Am J Ophthalmol 2006; 142:636-643.5.. Hartnett ME, Board RJ, Houghton O: Subretinal hemorrhage after lens-sparing vitrectomy in infants born at or under 24 weeks gestation. Retina 2008; 28:S69-S74.6.. Terry TL: Extreme prematurity and fibroblastic overgrowth of persistent vascular sheath behind each crystalline lens: (1) preliminary report. Am J Ophthalmol 1942; 25:203-204.7.. Michaelson IC: The mode of development of the vascular system of the retina. With some observations on its significance for certain retinal diseases. Trans Ophthalm Soc UK 1948; 68:137.8.. Ashton N, Cook C: Direct observation of the effect of oxygen on developing vessels: preliminary report. Br J Ophthalmol 1954; 38:433-440.9.. Patz A: Studies on retinal neovascularisation. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 1980; 19:1133-1138.10.. Allen MB, Donohue PK, Dusman AE: The limit of viability – neonatal outcome of infants born at 22 to 25 weeks’ gestation. N Engl J Med 1993; 329:1597-1601.11.. McColm JR, Cunningham S, Wade J, et al: Hypoxic oxygen fluctuations produce less severe retinopathy than hyperoxic fluctuations in a rat model of retinopathy of prematurity. Pediatr Res 2004; 55:107-113.13.. Saito Y, Omoto T, Cho Y, et al: The progression of retinopathy of prematurity and fluctuation in blood gas tension. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol 1993; 231:151-156.14.. Chow LC, Wright KW, Sola A: Can changes in clinical practice decrease the incidence of severe retinopathy of prematurity in very low birth weight infants?. Pediatrics 2003; 111:339-345.15.. Tin W, Milligan DWA, Pennefather PM, et al: Pulse oximetry, severe retinopathy, and outcome at one year in babies of less than 28 weeks gestation. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonat Ed 2001; 84:106-110.16.. Nagata M: Treatment of acute proliferative retinopathy of prematurity with xenon-arc photocoagulation (author's translation). Nippon Ganka Gakkai Zasshi 1976; 80:1453-1475.17.. Folkman J, Merler E, Abernathy C, et al: Isolation of a tumor factor responsible for angiogenesis. J Exp Med 1971; 133:275-288.18.. Cryotherapy for Retinopathy of Prematurity Cooperative Group: Multicenter trial of cryotherapy for retinopathy of prematurity: natural history ROP: ocular outcome at years in premature infants with birth weights less than 1251g. Arch Ophthalmol 2002; 120:595-599.20.. Behrman RE, Butler AS: Preterm birth: causes consequences and prevention; IOM Commmittee on understanding premature births and assuring healthy outcomes. National Academy of Sciences. Available online at www.iom.edu/Object.File/Master/35/975/pretermbirth.pdf200621.. Chen J, Smith LE: Retinopathy of prematurity. Angiogenesis 2007; 10:133-140.22.. Hatton DD, Schwietz E, Boyer B, et al: Babies count: the national registry for children with visual impairments, birth to 3 years. J Am Assoc Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus 2007; 11:351-355.23.. Schaffer DB, Palmer EA, Plotsky DF, et al: Prognostic factors in the natural course of retinopathy of prematurity. Ophthalmology 1993; 100:230-237.24.. Ng YK, Fielder AR, Shaw DE, et al: Epidemiology of retinopathy of prematurity. Lancet 1988; 2:1235-1238.25.. Vinekar A, Dogra MR, Sangtam T, et al: Retinopathy of prematurity in Asian Indian babies weighing greater than 1250 grams at birth: ten year data from a tertiary care center in a developing country. Ind J Ophthalmol 2007; 55:331-336.26.. Bizzarro MJ, Hussain N, Jonsson B, et al: Genetic susceptibility to retinopathy of prematurity. Pediatrics 2006; 118:1858-1863.27.. Shastry BS, Hejtmancik JF, Plager DA, et al: Linkage and candidate gene analysis of X-linked familial exudative vitreoretinopathy. Genomics 1995; 27:341-344.28.. Berger W: Molecular dissection of Norrie disease. Acta Anatom 1998; 162:95-100.29.. Hiraoka M, Berinstein DM, Trese MT, et al: Insertion and deletion mutations in the dinucleotide repeat region of the Norrie disease gene in patients with advanced retinopathy of prematurity. J Hum Genet 2001; 46:179-181.30.. Hutcheson KA, Paluru PC, Bernstein SL, et al: Norrie disease gene sequence variants in an ethnically diverse population with retinopathy of prematurity. Mol Vis 2005; 11:501-508.31.. Wu WC, Drenser K, Trese M, et al: Retinal phenotype–genotype correlation of pediatric patients expressing mutations in the Norrie disease gene. Arch Ophthalmol 2007; 125:225-230.32.. Holmstrom G, van Wijngaarden P, Coster DJ, et al: Genetic susceptibility to retinopathy of prematurity: the evidence from clinical and experimental animal studies. Br J Ophthalmol 2007; 91:1704-1708.33.. Cooke RWI, Drury JA, Mountford R, et al: Genetic polymorphisms and retinopathy of prematurity investigative ophthalmology. Vis Sci 2004; 45:1712-1715.34.. Vannay A, Dunai G, Banyansz I, et al: Association of genetic polymorphisms of vascular endothelial growth factor and risk for proliferative retinopathy of prematurity. Pediatr Res 2005; 57:396-398.35.. Mandal K, Drury JA, Clark DI: An unusual case of retinopathy of prematurity. J Perinatol 2007; 27:315-316.37.. Shastry BS: Assessment of the contribution of insulin-like growth factor I receptor 3174 G>A polymorphism to the progression of advanced retinopathy of prematurity. Eur J Ophthalmol 2007; 17:950-953.38.. Section on Ophthalmology American Academy of Pediatrics, American Academy of Ophthalmology, and American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus: Screening examination of premature infants for retinopathy of prematurity. Pediatrics 2006; 117:572-576.39.. Erratum. Pediatrics 2006; 118:1324.40.. Wallace DK, Zhao Z, Freedman SF: A pilot study using “ROPtool” to quantify plus disease in retinopathy of prematurity. J Am Assoc Pediatr Ophthalmol. Strabismus 2007; 11:381-387.41.. Ells AL, Holmes JM, Astle WF, et al: Telemedicine approach to screening for severe retinopathy of prematurity: a pilot study. Ophthalmology 2003; 110:2113-2117.42.. Photographic Screening for Retinopathy of Prematurity (Photo-ROP) Cooperative Group. Retina 2006; 26:S4-S10.45.. Chavala SH, Farsiu S, Maldonado R, et al. Insights into advanced retinopathy of prematurity utilizing handheld spectral domain optical coherence tomography imaging. Ophthalmology (in press).46.. Zhao S, Overbeek PA: Elevated TGFβ signaling inhibits ocular vascular development. Dev Biol 2001; 237:45-53.49.. Shah SS, Gloor P, Gallagher PG: Bacteremia, meningitis, and brain abscesses in a hospitalized infant: complications of Pseudomonas aeruginosa conjunctivitis. J Perinatol 1999; 19:462-465.50.. Ernest JT, Goldstick TK: Retinal oxygen tension and oxygen reactivity in retinopathy of prematurity in kittens. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 1984; 25:1129-1134.51.. Saito Y, Uppal A, Byfield G, et al: Inhibition of NAD(P)H oxidase activity reduces intravitreous neovascularization caused by supplemental oxygen in a rat model of retinopathy of prematurity. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2008; 49:1591-1598.52.. Lang RA, Bishop JM: Macrophages are required for cell death and tissue remodeling in the developing mouse eye. Cell 1993; 74:453-462.53.. Akula JD, Hansen RM, Martinez-Perez ME, et al: Rod photoreceptor function predicts blood vessel abnormality in retinopathy of prematurity. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2007; 48:4351-4359.56.. Morita M, Ohneda O, Yamashita T, et al: HLF/HIF-2alpha is a key factor in retinopathy of prematurity in association with erythropoietin. EMBO J 2003; 22:1134-1146.57.. Smith LEH, Kopchick JJ, Chen W, et al: Essential role of growth hormone in ischemia-induced retinal neovascularization. Science 1997; 276:1706-1709.58.. Smith LEH, Shen W, Peruzzu C, et al: Regulation of vascular endothelial growth factor-dependent retinal neovascularization by insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor. Nat Med 1999; 5:1390-1395.59.. Robinson GS, Aiello LP: Angiogenic factors in diabetic ocular disease: mechanisms of today, therapies for tomorrow. Int Ophthalmol Clin 1998; 38:89-102.60.. Pierce EA, Avery RL, Foley ED, et al: Vascular endothelial growth factor/vascular permeability factor expression in a mouse model of retinal neovascularization. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1995; 92:905-909.61.. Adamis AP, Miller JW, Bernal MT, et al: Increased vascular endothelial growth factor levels in the vitreous of eyes with proliferative diabetic retinopathy. Am J Ophthalmol 1994; 118:445-450.62.. Werdich XQ, McCollum GW, Rajaratnam VS, et al: Variable oxygen and retinal VEGF levels: correlation with incidence and severity of pathology in a rat model of oxygen-induced retinopathy. Exp Eye Res 2004; 79:623-630.63.. Young TL, Anthony DC, Pierce E, et al: Histopathology and vascular endothelial growth factor in untreated and diode laser-treated retinopathy of prematurity. JAAPOS 1997; 1:105-110.64.. Foos RY: Chronic retinopathy of prematurity. Ophthalmology 1985; 92:563-574.65.. Foos RY: Pathologic features of retinopathy of prematurity. Birth Defects 1988; 24:73-85.66.. Neu J, Afzal A, Pan H, et al: The dipeptide Arg-Gln inhibits retinal neovascularization in the mouse model of oxygen-induced retinopathy. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2006; 47:3151-3155.67.. Connor KM, SanGiovanni JP, Lofqvist C, et al: Increased dietary intake of ω-3-polyunsaturated fatty acids reduces pathological retinal angiogenesis. Nat Med 2007; 13:868-873.69.. Uno K, Merges CA, Grebe R, et al: Hyperoxia inhibits several critical aspects of vascular development. Dev Dyn 2007; 236:981-990.70.. Phelps DL: Oxygen and developmental retinal capillary remodelling in the kitten. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 1990; 31:2194-2200.71.. Chan-Ling T, Gock B, Stone J: The effect of oxygen on vasoformative cell division: evidence that “physiological hypoxia” is the stimulus for normal retinal vasculogenesis. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 1995; 36:1201-1214.72.. Stone J, Itin A, Alon T, et al: Development of retinal vasculature is mediated by hypoxia-induced vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression by neuroglia. J Neurosci 1995; 15:4738-4747.73.. McLeod DS, D’Anna SA, Lutty GA: Clinical and histopathologic features of canine oxygen-induced proliferative retinopathy. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 1998; 39:1918-1932.74.. Penn JS, Tolman BL, Lowery LA: Variable oxygen exposure causes preretinal neovascularisation in the newborn rat. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 1993; 34:576-585.76.. Gao G, Li Y, Zhang D, et al: Unbalanced expression of VEGF and PEDF in ischemia-induced retinal neovascularization. FEBS Lett 2001; 489:270-276.77.. McLeod DS, Crone SN, Lutty GA: Vasoproliferation in the neonatal dog model of oxygen-induced retinopathy. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 1996; 37:1322-1333.78.. Hong PH, Wright KW, Fillafer S, et al: Strict oxygen management is associated with decreased incidence of severity of retinopathy of prematurity. 2002 Annual Meeting Abstract and Program Planner. Accessed online at www.arvo.org.2002401179.. Hartnett ME, Martiniuk DJ, Saito Y, et al: Triamcinolone reduces neovascularization, capillary density and IGF-1 receptor phosphorylation in a model of oxygen-induced retinopathy. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2006; 47:4975-4982.80.. Liu K, Akula JD, Falk C, et al: The retinal vasculature and function of the neural retina in a rat model of retinopathy of prematurity. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2006; 47:2639-2647.81.. Penn JS, Tolman BL, Henry MM: Oxygen-induced retinopathy in the rat: Relationship of retinal nonperfusion to subsequent neovascularization. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 1994; 35:3429-3435.83.. Zhang S, Leske DA, Lanier WL, et al: Preretinal neovascularization associated with acetazolamide-induced systemic acidosis in the neonatal rat. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2001; 42:1066-1071.84.. Cunningham S, McColm JR, Wade J, et al: A novel model of retinopathy of prematurity simulating preterm oxygen variability in the rat. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2000; 41:4275-4280.85.. Saito Y, Geisen P, Uppal A, et al: Inhibition of NAD(P)H oxidase reduces apoptosis and avascular retina in an animal model of retinopathy of prematurity. Mol Vis 2007; 13:840-853.86.. Phelps DL.: Reduced severity of oxygen-induced retinopathy in kittens recovered in 28% oxygen. Pediatr Res 1988; 24:106-109.87.. Gu X, Samuel S, El Shabrawey M, et al: Effects of sustained hyperoxia on revascularization in experimental retinopathy of prematurity. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2002; 43:496-502.89.. The STOP-ROP Multicenter Study Group: Supplemental Therapeutic Oxygen for Prethreshold Retinopathy of Prematurity (STOP-ROP), a randomized, controlled trial. I: primary outcomes. Pediatrics 2000; 105:295-310.90.. Oosthuyse B, Moons L, Storkebaum E, et al: Deletion of the hypoxia-response element in the vascular endothelial growth factor promoter causes motor neuron degeneration. Nat Genet 2001; 28:131-138.91.. Laudenbach V, Fontaine RH, Medja F, et al: Neonatal hypoxic preconditioning involves vascular endothelial growth factor. Neurobiol Dis 2007; 26:243-252.92.. Nishijima K, Ng YS, Zhong L, et al: Vascular endothelial growth factor-A is a survival factor for retinal neurons and a critical neuroprotectant during the adaptive response to ischemic injury. Am J Pathol 2007; 171:53-67.93.. Chan-Ling T, McLeod DS, Hughes S, et al: Astrocyte–endothelial cell relationships during human retinal vascular development. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2004; 45:2020-2032.94.. McLeod DS, Hasegawa T, Prow T, et al: The initial fetal human retinal vasculature develops by vasculogenesis. Dev Dyn 2006; 235:3336-3347.95.. Hasegawa T, McLeod DS, Prow T, et al: Vascular precursors in developing human retina. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2008; 49:2178-2192.96.. Flynn JT, Chan-Ling T: Retinopathy of prematurity: two distinct mechanisms that underlie zone 1 and zone 2 disease. Am J Ophthalmol 2006; 142:46.97.. Taomoto M, McLeod DS, Merges C, et al: Localization of adenosine A2a receptor in retinal development and oxygen-induced retinopathy. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2000; 41:230-243.98.. Hiratsuka S, Minowa O, Kuno J, et al: Flt-1 lacking the tyrosine kinase domain is sufficient for normal development and angiogenesis in mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci 1998; 95:9349-9354.99.. Kearney JB, Kappas NC, Ellerstrom C, et al: The VEGF receptor flt-1 (VEGFR-1) is a positive modulator of vascular sprout formation and branching morphogenesis. Blood 2004; 103:4527-4535.100.. Gerhardt H, Golding M, Fruttiger M, et al: VEGF guides angiogenic sprouting utilizing endothelial tip cell filopodia. J Cell Biol 2003; 161:1163-1177.101.. Hellstrom M, Phng LK, Hofmann JJ, et al: Dll4 signalling through Notch1 regulates formation of tip cells during angiogenesis. Nature 2007; 445:776-780.102.. Alon T, Hemo I, Itin A, et al: Vascular endothelial growth factor acts as a survival factor for newly formed retinal vessels and has implications for retinopathy of prematurity. Nat Med 1995; 1:1024-1028.103.. Shih SC, Ju M, Liu N, et al: Selective stimulation of VEGFR-1 prevents oxygen-induced retinal vascular degeneration in retinopathy of prematurity. J Clin Invest 2003; 112:50-57.104.. Shibuya M: Differential roles of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-1 and receptor-2 in angiogenesis. J Biochem Mol Biol 2006; 39:469-478.105.. Witmer AN, Vrensen GFJM, Van Noorden CJF, et al: Vascular endothelial growth factors and angiogenesis in eye disease. Prog Retin Eye Res 2003; 22:1-29.106.. Yang X, Cepko CL: Flk-1, a receptor for vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), is expressed by retinal progenitor cells. J Neurosci 1996; 16:6089-6099.107.. Kim I, Ryan AM, Rohan R, et al: Constitutive expression of VEGF, VEGFR-1, and VEGFR-2 in normal eyes. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 1999; 40:2115-2121.108.. Zeng G, Taylor SM, McColm JR, et al: Orientation of endothelial cell division is regulated by VEGF signaling during blood vessel formation. Blood 2007; 109:1345-1352.109.. McColm JR, Geisen P, Hartnett ME: VEGF isoforms and their expression after a single episode of hypoxia or repeated fluctuations between hyperoxia and hypoxia: relevance to clinical ROP. Mol Vis 2004; 10:512-520.110.. Sone H, Kawakami Y, Kumagai AK, et al: Effects of intraocular or systemic administration of neutralizing antibody against vascular endothelial growth factor on the murine experimental model of retinopathy. Life Sci 1999; 65:2573-2580.112.. Werdich XQ, Penn JS: Specific involvement of Src family kinase activation in the pathogenesis of retinal neovascularization. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2006; 47:5047-5056.113.. Usui T, Ishida S, Yamashiro K, et al: VEGF164(165) as the pathological isoform: differential leukocyte and endothelial responses through VEGFR1 and VEGFR2. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2004; 45:368-374.114.. Ng EWM, Adamis AP: Anti-VEGF Aptamer (Pegaptanib) therapy for ocular vascular diseases. Ann NY Acad Sci 2006; 1082:151-171.115.. Jo N, Mailhos C, Ju M, et al: Inhibition of platelet-derived growth factor B signaling enhances the efficacy of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor therapy in multiple models of ocular neovascularization. Am J Pathol 2006; 168:2036-2053.116.. Kramerov AA, Saghizadeh M, Pan H, et al: Expression of protein kinase CK2 in astroglial cells of normal and neovascularized retina. Am J Pathol 2006; 168:1722-1736.117.. Arjamaa O, Nikinmaa M: Oxygen-dependent diseases in the retina: role of hypoxia-inducible factors. Exp Eye Res 2006; 83:473-483.118.. Ohlsson A, Aher SM. Early erythropoietin for preventing red blood cell transfusion in preterm and/or low birth weight infants. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2006;3:CD004863.119.. Brown MS, Baron AE, France EK, et al: Association between higher cumulative doses of recombinant erythropoietin and risk for retinopathy of prematurity. J Am Assoc Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus 2006; 10:143-149.120.. Lineham JD, Smith RM, Dahlenburg GW, et al: Circulating insulin-like growth factor I levels in newborn premature and full-term infants followed longitudinally. Early Hum Dev 1986; 13:37-46.121.. Lofqvist C, Chen J, Connor KM, et al: From the cover: IGFBP3 suppresses retinopathy through suppression of oxygen-induced vessel loss and promotion of vascular regrowth. Proc Natl Acad Sci 2007; 104:10589-10594.122.. Chang KH, Chan-Ling T, McFarland EL, et al: IGF binding protein-3 regulates hematopoietic stem cell and endothelial precursor cell function during vascular development. Proc Natl Acad Sci 2007; 104:10595-10600.123.. Flynn JT: Retinopathy of prematurity. Pediatr Clin North Am 1987; 34:1487-1516.124.. Ashton N, Ward B, Serpell G: Effect of oxygen on developing retinal vessels with particular reference to the problem of retrolental fibroplasia. Br J Ophthalmol 1954; 38:397-430.125.. Joussen AM, Poulaki V, Le ML, et al: A central role for inflammation in the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy. FASEB J 2004; 18:1450-1452.126.. Ishida S, Yamashiro K, Usui T, et al: Leukocytes mediate retinal vascular remodeling during development and vaso-obliteration in disease. Nat Med 2003; 9:781-789.127.. Wang S, Sorenson CM, Sheibani N: Attenuation of retinal vascular development and neovascularization during oxygen-induced ischemic retinopathy in Bcl-2-/- mice. Dev Biol 2005; 279:205-219.128.. Penn JS: Oxygen-induced retinopathy in the rat. Vitamins C and E as potential therapies. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 1992; 33:1836-1845.129.. Penn JS, Tolman BL, Bullard LE: Effect of a water-soluble vitamin E analog, Trolox C, on retinal vascular development in an animal model of retinopathy of prematurity. Free Radic Biol Med 1997; 22:977-984.130.. Niesman MR, Johnson KA, Penn JS: Therapeutic effect of liposomal superoxide dismutase in an animal model of retinopathy of prematurity. Neurochem Res 1997; 22:597-605.131.. Penn JS: Oxygen-induced retinopathy in the rat: possible contribution of peroxidation reactions. Doc Ophthalmol 1990; 74:179-186.132.. Phelps DL, Rosenbaum AL: Vitamin E in kitten oxygen-induced retinopathy. II. Blockage of vitreal neovascularization. Arch Ophthalmol 1979; 97:1522-1526.133.. Daemen FJ: Vertebrate rod outer segment membranes. Biochim Biophys Acta 1973; 300:255-288.134.. Askikainen TM, Heikkilä P, Kaarteenaho-Wiik R, et al: Cell-specific expression of manganese superoxide dismutase protein in the lungs of patients with respiratory distress syndrome, chronic lung disease, or persistent pulmonary hypertension. Pediatr Pulmonol 2001; 32:193-200.135.. Armstrong D, Ueda T, Ueda T, et al: Lipid hydroperoxide stimulates retinal neovascularization in rabbit retina through expression of tumor necrosis factor-alpha, vascular endothelial growth factor and platelet-derived growth factor. Angiogenesis 1998; 2:93-104.136.. Jay Forman H, Torres M: Redox signaling in macrophages. Mol Aspects Med 2001; 22:189-216.137.. Ushio-Fukai M: Redox signaling in angiogenesis: Role of NADPH oxidase. Cardiovasc Res 2006; 71:226-235.138.. Aruoma OI, Halliwell B, Hoey BM, et al: The antioxidant action of N-acetylcysteine – its reaction with hydrogen-peroxide, hydroxyl radical, superoxide, and hypochlorous acid. Free Radic Biol Med 1989; 6:593-597.139.. Benrahmoune M, Therond P, Abedinzadeh Z: The reaction of superoxide radical with N-acetylcysteine. Free Radic Biol Med 2000; 29:775-782.140.. Soghier LM, Brion LP. Cysteine, cystine or N-acetylcysteine supplementation in parenterally fed neonates. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2006:CD004869;PMID:17054219.141.. Reynolds JD, Hardy RJ, Kennedy KA, et al: Lack of efficacy of light reduction in preventing retinopathy of prematurity. N Engl J Med 1998; 338:1572-1576.142.. Checchin D, Sennlaub F, Levavasseur E, et al: Potential role of microglia in retinal blood vessel formation. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2006; 47:3595-3602.143.. Hughes EH, Schlichtenbrede FC, Murphy CC, et al: Minocycline delays photoreceptor death in the rds mouse through a microglia-independent mechanism. Exp Eye Res 2004; 78:1077-1084.144.. Xu H, Chen M, Mayer EJ, et al: Turnover of resident retinal microglia in the normal adult mouse. Glia 2007; 55:1189-1198.145.. Cai J, Jiang WG, Ahmed A, et al: Vascular endothelial growth factor-induced endothelial cell proliferation is regulated by interaction between VEGFR-2, SH-PTP1 and eNOS. Microvasc Res 2006; 71:20-31.146.. Yoshida S, Yoshida A, Ishibashi T: Induction of IL-8, MCP-1, and βFGF by TNF-α in retinal glial cells: implications for retinal neovascularization during post-ischemic inflammation. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol 2004; 242:409-413.147.. Sakurai E, Anand A, Ambati BK, et al: Macrophage depletion inhibits experimental choroidal neovascularization. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2003; 44:3578-3585.148.. Ishida S, Usui T, Yamashiro K, et al: VEGF164-mediated inflammation is required for pathological, but not physiological, ischemia-induced retinal neovascularization. J Exp Med 2003; 198:483-489.149.. Cryotherapy for Retinopathy of Prematurity Cooperative Group: Multicentre trial of cryotherapy for retinopathy of prematurity. Preliminary results. Arch Ophthalmol 1988; 106:471-479.150.. Hardy RJ, Palmer EA, Dobson V, et al: Risk analysis of prethreshold retinopathy of prematurity. Arch Ophthalmol 2003; 121:1697-1701.151.. Cryotherapy for Retinopathy of Prematurity Cooperative Group: Multicenter trial of cryotherapy for retinopathy of prematurity: three month outcome. Arch Ophthalmol 1990; 108:195-204.
//References 4-u1.0-B978-0-7020-2983-7..00072-3..DOCPDF Chapter 72 4-u1.0-B978-0-7020-2983-7..00072-3 4-u1.0-B978-0-7020-2983-7..00072-3--fr9000 4-u1.0-B978-0-7020-2983-7..00073-5 Retinopathy of prematurity SECTION 9 4-u1.0-B978-0-7020-2983-7..00072-3--fr9000 Retina hubsection 3 bibliography Retina SECTION 9 4-u1.0-B978-0-7020-2983-7..00072-3 4-u1.0-B978-0-7020-2983-7..00072-3--fr9000 Retinopathy of prematurity 4-u1.0-B978-0-7020-2983-7..X0001-0--s7 Retinopathy of prematurity text/html; charset=ISO-8859-1 References Chapter 72 chapter bookContent 4-u1.0-B978-0-7020-2983-7..X0001-0--s7 References 4-u1.0-B978-0-7020-2983-7..00072-3 4-u1.0-B978-0-7020-2983-7..X0001-0--s7 4-u1.0-B978-0-7020-2983-7..00072-3 4-u1.0-B978-0-7020-2983-7..00072-3--fr0010 5 4-u1.0-B978-0-7020-2983-7..00072-3--fr9000 Chapter 72 Ocular Disease: Mechanisms and Management 978-0-7020-2983-7 Levin 1st