Full-size Left-side Hidden

1.. Kahn HA, Leibowitz HM, Ganley JP, et al: The Framingham Eye Study: I. Outline and major prevalence findings. Am J Epidemiol  1977; 106:17-32.

2.. Hodge WG, Whitcher JP, Satariano W: Risk factors for age-related cataracts. Epidemiol Rev  1995; 17:336-346.

3.. West S: Epidemiology of cataract: accomplishments over 25 years and future directions. Ophthalm Epidemiol  2007; 14:173-178.

4.. Scammon RE, Hesdorfer MB: Growth in mass and volume of the human lens in postnatal life. Arch Ophthalmol  1937; 17:104-112.

5.. Augusteyn RC: Growth of the human eye lens. Mol Vis  2007; 13:252-257.

6.. Bassnett S: Lens organelle degradation. Exp Eye Res  2002; 74:1-6.

7.. al-Ghoul KJ, Lane CW, Taylor VL, et al: Distribution and type of morphological damage in human nuclear age-related cataracts. Exp Eye Res  1996; 62:237-251.

8.. Al-Ghoul KJ, Nordgren RK, Kuszak AJ, et al: Structural evidence of human nuclear fiber compaction as a function of ageing and cataractogenesis. Exp Eye Res  2001; 72:199-214.

9.. Brown NP, Harris ML, Shun-Shin GA, et al: Is cortical spoke cataract due to lens fibre breaks? The relationship between fibre folds, fibre breaks, waterclefts and spoke cataract. Eye  1993; 7:672-679.

10.. Vrensen GF: Aging of the human eye lens – a morphological point of view. Comp Biochem Physiol A Physiol  1995; 111:519-532.

11.. Vrensen G, Willekens B: Biomicroscopy and scanning electron microscopy of early opacities in the aging human lens. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci  1990; 31:1582-1591.

12.. Streeten BW, Eshaghian J: Human posterior subcapsular cataract. A gross and flat preparation study. Arch Ophthalmol  1978; 96:1653-1658.

13.. Eshagian J: Human posterior subcapsular cataracts. Trans. Ophthalmol Soc UK  1982; 102:364-368.

14.. AREDS: Centrum use and progression of age-related cataract in the Age-Related Eye Disease Study: a propensity score approach. AREDS report no. 21. Ophthalmology  2006; 113:1264-1270.

15.. Mares JA: High-dose antioxidant supplementation and cataract risk. Nutr Rev  2004; 62:28-32.

16.. Gritz DC, Srinivasan M, Smith SD, et al: The Antioxidants in Prevention of Cataracts (APC) study: effects of antioxidant supplements on cataract progression in South India. Br J Ophthalmol  2006.

18.. Chiu CJ, Taylor A: Nutritional antioxidants and age-related cataract and maculopathy. Exp Eye Res  2007; 84:229-245.

19.. Chylack Jr LT, Brown NP, Bron A, et al: The Roche European American Cataract Trial (REACT): a randomized clinical trial to investigate the efficacy of an oral antioxidant micronutrient mixture to slow progression of age-related cataract. Ophthalm Epidemiol  2002; 9:49-80.

20.. Younan C, Mitchell P, Cumming RG, et al: Hormone replacement therapy, reproductive factors, and the incidence of cataract and cataract surgery: the Blue Mountains Eye Study. Am J Epidemiol  2002; 155:997-1006.

21.. Aina FO, Smeeth L, Hubbard R, et al: Hormone replacement therapy and cataract: a population-based case-control study. Eye  2005; 20:417-422.

22.. Freeman EE, Munoz B, Schein OD, et al: Incidence and progression of lens opacities: effect of hormone replacement therapy and reproductive factors. Epidemiology  2004; 15:451-457.

23.. Defay R, Pinchinat S, Lumbroso S, et al: Relationships between hormonal status and cataract in French postmenopausal women: the POLA study. Ann Epidemiol  2003; 13:638-644.

24.. Sasaki H, Jonasson F, Shui YB, et al: High prevalence of nuclear cataract in the population of tropical and subtropical areas. Dev Ophthalmol  2002; 35:60-69.

25.. Delcourt C, Carriere I, Ponton-Sanchez A, et al: Light exposure and the risk of cortical, nuclear, and posterior subcapsular cataracts: the Pathologies Oculaires Liées a l’Age (POLA) study. Arch Ophthalmol  2000; 118:385-392.

28.. McCarty CA, Nanjan MB, Taylor HR: Attributable risk estimates for cataract to prioritize medical and public health action. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci  2000; 41:3720-3725.

29.. Taylor HR, West SK, Rosenthal FS, et al: Effect of ultraviolet radiation on cataract formation. N Engl J Med  1988; 319:1429-1433.

31.. Gillies MC, Kuzniarz M, Craig J, et al: Intravitreal triamcinolone-induced elevated intraocular pressure is associated with the development of posterior subcapsular cataract. Ophthalmology  2005; 112:139-143.

32.. Thompson JT: Cataract formation and other complications of intravitreal triamcinolone for macular edema. Am J Ophthalmol  2006; 141:629-637.

33.. Lyu J, Kim J-A, Chung SK, et al: Alteration of cadherin in dexamethasone-induced cataract organ-cultured rat lens. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci  2003; 44:2034-2040.

36.. Heiba IM, Elston RC, Klein BE, et al: Genetic etiology of nuclear cataract: evidence for a major gene. Am J Med Genet  1993; 47:1208-1214.

37.. Heiba IM, Elston RC, Klein BE, et al: Evidence for a major gene for cortical cataract. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci  1995; 36:227-235.

38.. Iyengar SK, Klein BEK, Klein R, et al: Identification of a major locus for age-related cortical cataract on chromosome 6p12-q12 in the Beaver Dam Eye Study. PNAS  2004; 101:14485-14490.

39.. Klein B, Klein R, Moss S: Correlates of lens thickness: the Beaver Dam Eye Study. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci  1998; 39:1507-1510.

41.. Wong TY, Foster PJ, Johnson GJ, et al: Refractive errors, axial ocular dimensions, and age-related cataracts: the Tanjong Pagar survey. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci  2003; 44:1479-1485.

42.. O’Malley P: The pattern of vitreous syneresis. A study of 800 autopsy eyes.   In: Irvine AR, O’Malley C, ed. Advances in Vitreous Surgery,  Springfield, IL: Thomas; 1976:17-33.

43.. Sebag J: Age-related changes in human vitreous structure. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol  1987; 225:89-93.

45.. Rosen E: Vitreous detachment associated with nuclear sclerosis. Am J Ophthalmol  1962; 54:837-841.

46.. Lin HY, Chang CW, Wang HZ, et al: Relation between the axial length and lenticular progressive myopia. Eye  2005; 19:899-905.

47.. Kubo E, Kumamoto Y, Tsuzuki S, et al: Axial length, myopia, and the severity of lens opacity at the time of cataract surgery. Arch Ophthalmol  2006; 124:1586-1590.

48.. Chen S-N, Lin K-K, Chao A-N, et al: Nuclear sclerotic cataract in young patients in Taiwan. J Cataract Refract Surg  2003; 29:983-988.

49.. Brash D, Rudolph J, Simon J, et al: A role for sunlight in skin cancer: UV-induced p53 mutations in squamous cell carcinoma. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA  1991; 88:10124-10128.

50.. Jonason AS, Kunala S, Price GJ, et al: Frequent clones of p53-mutated keratinocytes in normal human skin. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA  1996; 93:14025-14029.

51.. Delcourt C, Cristol JP, Tessier F, et al: Risk factors for cortical, nuclear, and posterior subcapsular cataracts: the POLA study. Pathologies Oculaires Liées a l’Age. Am J Epidemiol  2000; 151:497-504.

52.. Cumming RG, Mitchell P, Lim R: Iris color and cataract: the blue mountains eye study. Am J Ophthalmol  2000; 130:237-238.

53.. Younan C, Mitchell P, Cumming RG, et al: Iris color and incident cataract and cataract surgery: the Blue Mountains Eye Study. Am J Ophthalmol  2002; 134:273-274.

54.. Fisher RF: Senile cataract. A comparative study between lens fibre stress and cuneiform opacity formation. Trans Ophthalmol Soc UK  1970; 90:93-109.

56.. Pau H: Cortical and subcapsular cataracts: significance of physical forces. Ophthalmologica  2006; 220:1-5.

57.. Heys KR, Friedrich MG, Truscott RJ: Presbyopia and heat: changes associated with aging of the human lens suggest a functional role for the small heat shock protein, alpha-crystallin, in maintaining lens flexibility. Aging Cell  2007; 6:807-815.

58.. Klein BEK, Klein R, Lee KE: Diabetes, cardiovascular disease, selected cardiovascular disease risk factors, and the 5-year incidence of age-related cataract and progression of lens opacities: the Beaver Dam Eye Study. Am J Ophthalmol  1998; 126:782-790.

59.. Kumamoto Y, Takamura Y, Kubo E, et al: Epithelial cell density in cataractous lenses of patients with diabetes: association with erythrocyte aldose reductase. Exp Eye Res  2007; 85:393-399.

60.. Oishi N, Morikubo S, Takamura Y, et al: Correlation between adult diabetic cataracts and red blood cell aldose reductase levels. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci  2006; 47:2061-2064.

61.. Holekamp NM, Shui Y-B, Beebe D: Lower intraocular oxygen tension in diabetic patients: possible contribution to decreased incidence of nuclear sclerotic cataract. Am J Ophthalmol  2006; 141:1027-1032.

62.. Hiller R, Sperduto RD, Ederer F: Epidemiologic associations with nuclear, cortical, and posterior subcapsular cataracts. Am J Epidemiol  1986; 124:916-925.

63.. Cook C, Koretz J, Pfahnl A, et al: Aging of the human crystalline lens and anterior segment. Vision Res  1994; 34:2945-2954.

65.. Tabandeh H, Thompson GM, Heyworth P, et al: Water content, lens hardness and cataract appearance. Eye  1994; 8:125-129.

66.. Giblin FJ: Glutathione: a vital lens antioxidant. J Ocul Pharmacol Ther  2000; 16:121-135.

68.. Calvin H, Medvedovsky C, David J, et al: Rapid deterioration of lens fibers in GSH-depleted mouse pups. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci  1991; 32:1916-1924.

69.. Moffat BA, Pope JM: Anisotropic water transport in the human eye lens studied by diffusion tensor NMR micro-imaging. Exp Eye Res  2002; 74:677-687.

70.. Sweeney MH, Truscott RJ: An impediment to glutathione diffusion in older normal human lenses: a possible precondition for nuclear cataract. Exp Eye Res  1998; 67:587-595.

71.. Kantorow M, Hawse JR, Cowell TL, et al: Methionine sulfoxide reductase A is important for lens cell viability and resistance to oxidative stress. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA  2004; 101:9654-9659.

72.. Lou MF: Redox regulation in the lens. Prog Retin Eye Res  2003; 22:657-682.

75.. Ross ME, Yolton DP, Yolton RL, et al: Myopia associated with hyperbaric oxygen therapy. Optom Vis Sci  1996; 73:487-494.

76.. Lyne AJ: Ocular effects of hyperbaric oxygen. Trans Ophthalmol Soc UK  1978; 98:66-68.

77.. Evanger K, Haugen OH, Irgens A, et al: Ocular refractive changes in patients receiving hyperbaric oxygen administered by oronasal mask or hood. Acta Ophthalmol Scand  2004; 82:449-453.

78.. Shui Y-B, Fu J-J, Garcia C, et al: Oxygen distribution in the rabbit eye and oxygen consumption by the lens. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci  2006; 47:1571-1580.

79.. Sakaue H, Negi A, Honda Y: Comparative study of vitreous oxygen tension in human and rabbit eyes. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci  1989; 30:1933-1937.

80.. Helbig H, Hinz JP, Kellner U, et al: Oxygen in the anterior chamber of the human eye. Germ J Ophthalmol  1993; 2:161-164.

81.. Alder VA, Niemeyer G, Cringle SJ, et al: Vitreal oxygen tension gradients in the isolated perfused cat eye. Curr Eye Res  1986; 5:249-256.

82.. Alder VA, Cringle SJ: Vitreal and retinal oxygenation. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol  1990; 228:151-157.

83.. Lin HY, Chang CW, Wang HZ, et al: Relation between the axial length and lenticular progressive myopia. Eye  2004; 19:899-905.

84.. Melberg NS, Thomas MA: Nuclear sclerotic cataract after vitrectomy in patients younger than 50 years of age. Ophthalmology  1995; 102:1466-1471.

85.. Cherfan GM, Michels RG, de Bustros S, et al: Nuclear sclerotic cataract after vitrectomy for idiopathic epiretinal membranes causing macular pucker. Am J Ophthalmol  1991; 111:434-438.

86.. de Bustros S, Thompson JT, Michels RG, et al: Nuclear sclerosis after vitrectomy for idiopathic epiretinal membranes. Am J Ophthalmol  1988; 105:160-164.

87.. Thompson JT, Glaser BM, Sjaarda RN, et al: Progression of nuclear sclerosis and long-term visual results of vitrectomy with transforming growth factor beta-2 for macular holes. Am J Ophthalmol  1995; 119:48-54.

88.. Van Effenterre G, Ameline B, Campinchi F, et al: Is vitrectomy cataractogenic? Study of changes of the crystalline lens after surgery of retinal detachment. J Fr Ophtalmol  1992; 15:449-454.

91.. Shui Y, Beebe DC: Age-dependent control of lens growth by hypoxia. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci  2008; 49:1023-1029.