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REFERENCES

1. Benatar SR: Ethics and tropical diseases: a global perspective.   In: Cook G, Zumla A, ed. Manson's Tropical Diseases,  21st edn.. Edinburgh: Elsevier Science; 2003:85-93.

2. United Nations Development Program : Human Development Report,  New York, Oxford University Press, 1998.

3. Commission on Health Research for Development : Health research: essential link to equity in development,  Oxford, Oxford University Press, 1990.

4. Benatar SR: Human rights in the biotechnology era: a story of two lives and two worlds.   In: Bhatia GS, O'Neil JS, Gall GL, et al ed. Peace, Justice and Freedom,  Edmonton: University of Alberta Press; 1998:245-257.

5.  In: Burley J, ed. The Genetic Revolution and Human Rights,  Oxford: Oxford University Press; 1999.

6. Alexander T: Unravelling Global Apartheid: An Overview of World Politics,  Cambridge, Polity Press, 1996.

7. Richmond AH: Global Apartheid: Refugees, Racism and the New World Order,  Toronto, Oxford University Press, 1996.

8. Pettifor A: Debt, The Most Potent Form of Slavery: A Discussion of The Role of Western Lending Policies in Supporting the Economies of Poor Countries,  London, Debt Crisis Network, 1996.

9. WHO : Investing in Health, Research and Development. Report of the Ad-hoc Committee on Health's Research Relating to Future Intervention Options,  Geneva, World Health Organization, 1996.

10. Heilbroner R: Twenty-first Century Capitalism,  London, WW Norton, 1993.

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14. Galbraith JK: The Culture of Contentment,  Boston, Houghton Mifflin, 1992.

15. Lerner M: The Belief in a Just World: A Fundamental Delusion,  New York, Plenum Press, 1980.

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17. Ralph J: American democracy and democracy promotion. Review article. Int Affairs  2001; 77:129-140.

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20. Abbasi K: The World Bank and health. BMJ  1999; 318:1132-1135.

21. Global Health Watch : Global Health Watch 2005-2006: An Alternative World Health Report,  London, Zed Books, 2005.

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23. Lancaster C: Transforming Foreign Aid: United States Assistance in the 21st Century,  Washington, DC: Institute for International Economics; 2000:108.

24. Woods N: The shifting politics of foreign aid. Int Aff  2005; 81:393-409.

25. Sivard RL: World Military and Social Expenditure,  16th edn.. Washington, DC, World Priorities Press, 1996.

26. Mahmudi-Azer S: Arms trade and its impact on health. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics  2006; 27(1):81-93.

27. Arthur J, Shaw WH: Justice and Economic Distribution,  2nd edn.. Englewood Cliffs, NJ, Prentice-Hall, 1991.

28. Sreenivasan G: International justice and health: a proposal. Ethics Int Aff  2002; 16:81-90.

29. Caney S: Justice Beyond Borders: A Global Political Theory,  Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2005.

30. Buchanan AE: Privatisation and just healthcare. Bioethics  1995; 9:220-239.

31. Singer P: One World: The Ethics of Globalization,  New Haven, Yale University Press, 2002.

32. Buchanan A: Justice, Legitimacy, and Self-Determination: Moral Foundations for International Law,  Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2004.

33. Donnelly J: Human rights: a new standard of civilisation?. Int Relations  1998; 74:1-24.

34. Amnesty International : The United States of America: Rights for All,  London, Amnesty International, 1998.

35. Cassese A: Inhuman States: Imprisonment, Torture and Detention in Europe Today,  Cambridge, Polity Press, 1996.

36. Brown C: Understanding International Relations,  London, Macmillan, 1997.

37.  In: Friman HR, Andreas P, ed. The Illicit Global Economy and State Power,  Oxford: Rowman and Littlefield; 1999.

38. Kung H: Global Responsibility: In Search of a New World Ethic,  New York, Continuum Press, 1993.

39. Smart N: World Views Cross-Cultural Explorations of Human Beliefs,  2nd edn.. Englewood Cliffs, Prentice-Hall, 1995.

40. Doyal L, Gough I: A Theory of Human Need,  London, Macmillan, 1991.

41. Challenges for global health in the 21st century: some upstream considerations. Theor Med Bioeth  2006; 27(1):3-114.

42. Benatar SR: Some reflections and recommendations on research ethics in developing countries. Soc Sci Med  2002; 54:1131-1141.

43.  WHO. Country Health System Fact Sheet 2006: Gambia. Online. Available:http://www.afro.who.int/home/countries/fact_sheets/gambia.pdf possible to compare with http://www.afro.who.int/home/countries/fact_sheets/malawi.pdf 24 June 2008.

44. Shapiro K, Benatar SR: HIV prevention research and global inequality: towards improved standards of care. J Med Ethics  2005; 31:39-47.

45. Costello A, Zumla A: Moving to research partnerships in developing countries. BMJ  2000; 321:827-829.

46. Lo B, Bayer R: Establishing ethical trials for treatment and prevention of AIDS in developing countries. BMJ  2003; 327:337-339.

47. Macklin R: After Helsinki: unresolved issues in international research. Kennedy Inst Ethics J  2001; 11(1):17-36.

48. Benatar SR: Towards progress in resolving dilemmas in international research ethics. J Law Med Ethics  2004; 32(4):574-582.

49. Benatar SR, Fleischer TE: Ethical and policy implications of clinical drug trials in developing countries. Harvard Health Policy Rev  2005; 6(1):97-105.

50. Benatar SR, Singer PA: A new look at international research ethics. BMJ  2000; 321:824-826.

51. Fogarty International Center : International Research Ethics Education and Curriculum Development Award.  Online. Available: http://www.fic.nih.gov/programs/training_grants/bioethics/index.htm20 Nov 2006

52. Chadwick R, Berg K: Solidariy and Equity: new ethical frameworks for genetic databases. Nat Rev Genet  2001; 31(2):80321.

53. Wendler D, Pace C, Talisuna AO, et al: Research on stored biological samples: the views of Ugandans. IRB: Ethics Hum Rights  2005; 27(2):1-5.

54. Benatar SR, Daar AS, Singer PA: Global health ethics: the rationale for mutual caring. Int Aff  2003; 79:107-138.