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Menace Response

The normal response to a menace response test is avoidance such as moving the head away from the object or blinking the eyes. This response is a learned behavior and is therefore typically absent in puppies and kittens under 12 weeks of age. A palpebral reflex (intact facial nerve CN VII) and eyelid function should be elicited and present prior to evaluating a menace response. Severe buphthalmia, exophthalmia, or blepharospasm will prevent blinking and obtaining a menace response. An intact menace response requires an intact visual cortex, whereas a dazzle reflex and corneal reflex are strictly subcortical responses. Dazzle reflex is mediated by reflex centers in the rostral colliculi and can evaluate optic nerve function while not stimulating the trigeminal nerve.