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      The globe is pushed forward – best detected by looking down from above (Fig. 2.12).

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      Axial proptosis is caused by lesions within the muscle cone such as cavernous haemangioma, optic nerve tumours and thyroid eye disease.
      Eccentric proptosis is caused by extraconal lesions in which the direction of proptosis is determined by the site of the lesion.

Causes of pseudo-proptosis

      Ipsilateral large globe as in buphthalmos (Fig. 2.13) or very high myopia.
      Ipsilateral lid retraction.
      Contralateral enophthalmos.

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