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CHAPTER 7 – Skin and its appendages

In this chapter, the types and functions of skin in different parts of the body are described first, followed by the microstructure of the epidermis and dermis, and the appendages of skin including the pilosebaceous units and the sweat glands and nails. The development of skin, natural skin lines and age-related changes, and clinical aspects of skin, e.g. grafts, surgical skin flaps and wound healing, are also described. The integumental system includes the skin and its derivatives, hairs, nails, sweat and sebaceous glands; subcutaneous fat and deep fascia; the mucocutaneous junctions around the openings of the body orifices; and the breasts. Mucocutaneous junctions and breast tissues are covered in the appropriate regional sections.


The skin covers the entire external surface of the body, including the external auditory meatus, the lateral aspect of the tympanic membrane and the vestibule of the nose. It is continuous with the …